The Relationship among Total Dissolved Solid in Water and Blood Macro Mineral Concentrations and Health Status of Dairy Cattle in Qom Area
A. Alizadeh, M. Mahmoodi, A. Ghazikhani Shad, and S. Jalali
Dairy farms in some arid areas around the world have to use drinking water that contained elevated total dissolved solids (TDS); however, very limited data is available concerning water TDS effects on health status and blood mineral levels of cattle. The aim of this study was to compare 3 dairy cattle groups in several dairy farms with different drinking water TDS: High (HTDS; >4000 ppm), Medium (MTDS; 1500-3000 ppm), and Low (LTDS; ≈ 490 ppm). Metabolic disorders record and some management information of each herd during five years were collected and some Holstein dairy herd in Qom (n = 10) were assigned to 3 groups. Moreover, six same dairy cows were selected from each TDS group and blood and feed samples were collected twice a week. Urine samples were taken from the dry cows and urine pH was measured. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Although water TDS range was between 500 and 4500 ppm, dry cows urine pH was unaltered by water TDS and health problems are not common in this area. Blood calcium concentrations increased linearly as TDS increased (P < 0.05). Similarly, blood potassium concentrations were affected by TDS, whereas blood Mg and Na contents were unaltered by TDS. Negligible elevated some mineral concentrations in blood whereas the water TDSs are dramatically different show necessity of revision of mineral supplementation or providing high quality water to decrease metabolic stress in dairy cattle.
Key words: Water TDS, metabolic disorders, blood mineral, dairy cattle, arid area
Effects of calcium salts of fatty acids (Megalac) on reproductive performance and blood parameters of Kalkohi ewes
A. Alizadeh, F. Azizi, K. Karkoodi, S. Jalali, and M. Ghoreishi
To determine the effects of Megalac addition on Iranian ewes’ reproductive parameters, a complete randomized design was used. Multiparous Kalkohi ewes (n = 32; 3 years old) were randomly assigned to 2 groups which consumed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous control (C) or Megalac (M; 5% Megalac in diet DM) diet. All ewes were synchronized by prostaglandin injection. Blood samples were collected from d 8, 10, and 12 of estrus cycle. Diets offered 4 wk prior to mating and up to 4 wk after mating and 2 weeks before parturition. Pregnancy, lambing and twining rate were not significantly affected by fat inclusion in ewe diet (P ³ %5). Similarly, pregnancy length was unaltered by treatment (P ³ %5). Lambing crop was affected by diet fat (P £ %5). Cholesterol concentration significantly increased as Megalac added to the diet (52.7 vs. 49.7 mg/dl in M and C, respectively; P £ %5), whereas P4 concentration was similar between M and C group in d 8, 10 and 12 of estrus cycle (3.80 and 3.81 nmol/L for M and C, respectively; P ³ %5). This experiment suggests that fatty acid content and profile of this level of Megalac may be insufficient for improving ewes’ reproduction performance, but 2.5 % Megalac in ewes’ diet DM before parturition could improve lamb weight. The lack of changes in P4 concentrations alongside the increasing of blood cholesterol did not support cholesterol and P4 relation. However, further studies are needed to determine impact of various fat sources and levels on physiological responses in ewes.
Key words: Megalac, reproduction, cholesterol, progesterone, ewe
Evaluation of different plating medias and PCR in the detecting of Salmonella Enteritidis from eggs laid by experimentally infected hens
M. S. Madadi, M. Azari, A. Yazdani, A. A. Shekarchi
Salmonellosis is one of the most important food-borne diseases. Outbreaks of Salmonellosis are mainly related to the consumption of contaminated eggs or egg-products and, less frequently, of poultry meat. In this study fifty 29-week-old broiler breeder hens were randomly divided in two groups of 25 birds. One group of birds inoculated orally with 10log10 CFU and other group inoculated intravenously with 6log10 CFU of S. Enteritidis parent strain bacteria. During 35 days of experimental period, produced eggs were cultured using different medias and S.Enteritidis was detected using different cultural and PCR method. SE was isolated during 32.5 % of experimental days and more isolation rate of Salmonella was during the first two weeks of post infection period. In contrast, using pre-enrichment media resulted more isolation rate of Salmonella cells and SS agar was more sensitive than BG agar. PCR was more sensitive than cultural methods for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis from contaminated eggs.
Key words: Salmonella Enteritidis, PCR, Culture, hen
Detection of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in serum of broiler chickens of Iran
A. Ghaniei, N. Mohammadzadeh
Newcastle disease (ND) is a common problem in poultry farms of Iran. Several serological and molecular tools are applied to diagnose the infection and predict its effects. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) is a serologic test that commonly used in diagnostic laboratories. In order to determine NDV antibody status in broiler flocks of West and East Azarbayjan at the end of rearing period, 383 blood samples collected from 2 slaughterhouses in West Azarbayjan and subjected to HI test. 40.6% of samples were positive for NDV antibodies. High prevalence of NDV infections in poultry flocks indicates that present applied strategies are not fully effective in the case of this infection. Biosecurity measures, vaccination programs and surveillance are altogether effective strategies in prevention of infection.
Keywords: Newcastle disease, HI, Iran.