Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)
Vol 2(4), 2013
Feeding frequency interfacing tradition and modernity in dairy production: feeding behavior insights
Feeding frequency (FF) remains an esoteric strategy in modern dairy production, because of multiple management factors affecting cow responses. The objective was to determine FF effects on eating, ruminating, and chewing behaviors of dairy cows in a non-competitive environment. Eight multiparous, early-lactation Holstein cows housed in individual box stalls received either once daily (1×) at 07:00 h or 4 times daily (4×) at 01:00, 07:00, 13:00 and 19:00 h a chopped alfalfa hay based total mixed ration (TMR) in a crossover design with two 20-d periods. Once instead of four times feeding significantly increased dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 20.0 ± 0.5 kg/d) and elongated the first meal (106 versus 49 ± 21.5 min). Daily time spent eating (303 ± 37 min/d), ruminating (314 ± 34 min/d), total chewing (617 ± 55 min/d), laying (562 ± 57 min/d) and standing (666 ± 49 min/d) were not different between treatments. Findings provide novel evidence on feeding behavior response to FF in early-lactation cows under noncompetitive individual feeding and housing.
Key words: eating behavior, ruminating, chewing, feeding frequency, early-lactation cow
Abbreviations: DMI, dry matter intake; FF, feeding frequency; FML, first meal length; peNDF, physically effective neutral detergent fiber; TMR, total mixed ration.
Mycobiota and Toxigenecity Profile of Aspergillus flavus Recovered from Food and Poultry Feed Mixtures in Cameroon
Jean Raphaël Kana*, Benoit Gbemenou Joselin Gnonlonfin, Jagger Harvey,
James Wainaina, Immaculate Wanjuki, Robert A. Skilton, and Alexis Teguia
A total of 202 poultry feed and its raw ingredients collected from different agroecological zones of Cameroon were examined for total mycoflora and the ability of A. flavus isolates to produces aflatoxin B1. Dilution plating was used for fungal isolation. The mean fungal contamination levels were significantly higher in maize and peanut meal as compared with broiler and layer feeds. In peanut meal and poultry feed, the most representative fungi were A. flavus, A. niger, A. oryzae, F. solani, F. verticilloides, Penicillium spp, and Rhizopus spp. Of all the fungi encountered, A. flavus was encountered in 90% of white maize and 28.5% of yellow maize samples. The frequency of isolation of the most representative fungi in peanut meal, broiler and layer feed was 100, 94, and 76.5% for A. flavus and 70.6, 82.3, and 76.5% for Penicillium spp, respectively. Molecular identification using the Intergenic Spacer Gene (IGS) for aflatoxin biosynthesis confirmed all fungi identified morphologically as A. flavus. Aflatoxin B1 analysis showed that all the A. flavus isolates encountered were aflatoxin B1 producers. Conclusion from this study indicate that the use of peanut meal in poultry feed is risky, and can impact poultry health and economic benefits.
Key words: aflatoxin, animal feed, fungal contamination, toxigenic
Effects of dietary administration of multi-enzyme on productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of safflower meal
A. Ehsani, A. H. Mahdavi*, A. H. Samie and B. Dolatkhah
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of multi-enzyme on productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of safflower meal. A total of 250 Leghorn laying hens (Hy-Line W-36) 47 weeks-old were randomly assigned into 10 experimental treatments with 5 replicates of 5 birds each. Experimental treatments consisted of five safflower meal levels (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 g/100g of diet) with and without multi-enzyme (Bergazym P®,0.0 and 0.1 g/100g of diet) as a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement that fed during a 10 weeks feeding trial. During the experimental period, eggs were collected and weighed daily, and feed consumption was weekly recorded. Then, the productive performance indices including feed consumption, egg production percentage, egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were reported as 14 d intervals and during entire trial period. Feeding laying hens 2.5% and 5% safflower meal showed tendency to increased egg mass in the entire experimental period. This improvement was largely due to the marginal increase in egg production percentage. The best FCR was found in birds fed on diets contained in 0.0% to 5.0 % safflower meal. Feed conversion ratio increased significantly after feeding at least 7.5 % safflower meal. Increase in FCR was due to the trend in decreased egg production and contemporaneous increase in feed consumption. On the other hand, using multi-enzyme did not improve FCR. Adding multi-enzyme increased the egg production percentage and egg mass. Therefore, our results indicated that safflower meal can be included in diets of laying hens up to 5% with no adverse effect on performance. Also, administration of cocktail commercial enzyme to the diets of laying hens would have beneficial effects on productive performance, especially in terms of egg production.
Key words: safflower meal, multi-enzyme, laying hens, performance
Prevalence of Abomasal Nematodes in slaughtered Goats at industrial Urmia slaughterhouse, West Azerbaijan province, Northwest of Iran
Mohammad Hakimzadegan* Mahmoud Khalilzadeh Khosroshahi
Parasitic infections are generally regarded as the most prevalent and important health problems of grazing ruminants in Iran. Gastro-Intestinal nematode parasite infections are a major constraint to the small ruminants (sheep and goat) industry and cause to reduce weight gains, growth rate, nutrient utilization and less meat, wool and milk production, also increased costs of management, treatment and even mortality in several cases. A study was carried out to estimate the prevalence abomasal nematodes of slaughtered goats at the Industrial Urmia slaughterhouse from March 2012 to March 2013. During the study period, 130 abomasums of goats were examined according to standard procedures. Four genera of nematodes were identified in the goats abomasum with an overall prevalence of 46.14%. The specific prevalence observed was Ostertagia ostertagi (12.30%), Ostertagia circumcincta. (7.69%), Haemonchus contortus (16.92%) and Marshallagia marshalli (9.23%). Among the species found Haemonchus contortus was the most prevalent and frequent species. No significant correlation was observed between the prevalence of infection with seasons and ages.
Keywords: Abomasal, Nematodes, Goat, Industrial Urmia slaughterhouse, Iran