Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)
Vol 3(4), 2014
The effect of canola meal processing by heat, moisture and ammonium bicarbonate on metabolisable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicken
S. M. Hashemi*, and M Beiki
Nutritional value of canola meal can be improved by processing methods. In this experiment factorial arrangement of processing factors, including three levels of heat exposure (60, 90 & 120 °C), two levels of time (15 & 30 min.), two levels of moisture (wet & dry) and two levels of ammonium bicarbonate (0 & 3%) were considered. Twenty-four kinds of processed canola meal with 3 replicates were fed to 18 days old broilers (70% basal diet plus 30% processed canola meal) with row canola meal as a control group. At 21 days of age, samples of feed and feces were collected to measure the gross energy and nitrogen content. Apparent metabolisable energy of canola meal and nitrogen retention is calculated by marker assay method. Acid insoluble ash was used as indigestible marker. Results showed that N retention negatively affected as the temperature rises. Ammonium bicarbonate increased the apparent metabolizable energy of canola meal and nitrogen retention at P=0.06. In conclusion, to improving the apparent metabolizable energy and N retention, the best combination of factors was 60 °C heat exposure for 30 min and wet treatment without ammonium bicarbonate.
Keywords: canola meal, processing, heat, ammonium bicarbonate
Antibacterial characteristics of grape seed extract and nano-grape seed extract in in vitro and in vivo assays
H. Hajati*, A. Hassanabadi, A. Golian1, H. Nassiri-Moghaddam, M. R. Nassiri and R. Safari
This study was done to examine the antimicrobial activity of grape seed extract (GSE) and nano grape seed extract (NGSE) in in vivo and in vitro assays. For the in vitro assay, the antimicrobial activity of grape seed extract and nano-grape seed extract against Escherichiacoli and Salmonella typhi was examined by modified agar-well diffusion method. For the in vivo assay, the microbial population of ileum of the broiler chickens fed diet supplemented with GSE and NGSE was evaluated. Treatments included control diet, and control diet supplemented with 3 levels (150, 300, 450 ppm) of GSE and NGSE. Results showed that GSE and NGSE had bactericidal activity against E. coli and bacteriostatic activity against S. typhi. GSE at the level of 450 ppm caused the largest inhibition zone against E. coli (32 mm). Nanoliposomes of grape seed extract could not improve the antimicrobial effect of GSE in vitro situation. In vivo assay, NGSE at the level of 450 ppm caused the lowest ileal coliforms and E. coli populations. However, there was no significant difference between population of lactobacillus in birds of different groups. Further study needs to make clear the potential of using grape seed extract nano-liposomes in human and animal drugs as a natural antimicrobial compound.
Key words: anti-bacterial, nano-liposome, grape seed extract, in vivo
Apparent metabolizable and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values of local feedstuffs and by-products for broilers
M. Ali*, M. Sarwar, N. A. Khan, S. Mahmood, and Z. Manzoor
The nutritional quality of feed ingredients varies due to differences in crop varieties, agronomic and climatic conditions, and industrial processing in different parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to analyze the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) values of wheat, corn gluten 30% and fish meal at different growth stages of commercial broilers. In addition, the effect of the inclusion of these feed ingredients was investigated on feed intake, growth rate and feed efficiency of broilers. Four experimental diets were formulated, a basal diet containing corn and soybean meal (diet-A), which was partially replaced with wheat (150 g/kg; diet-B), corn gluten 30% (84.5 g/kg; diet-C), and fish meal (40 g/kg; diet-D). Two hundred and forty day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 24 pens (10 chicks per pen). Each experimental diet was fed to birds in6 replicate pens. The excreta were collected over a period of 48 h post feeding from each pen on day 22 and day 32 of experiment. The results showed that the weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio increased with the advancement of age in all the dietary groups, however, birds fed on corn gluten 30% were more efficient in feed utilization compared to the other diets. The AME and AMEn values were significantly (P<0.05) differed between the experimental diets and age stages of the birds. The new obtained database on the AME and AMEn values of local feed ingredients can be very helpful to formulate the broiler rations by including these local feed ingredients to decrease the production cost without decline in growth rate.
Key words: wheat, corn gluten 30%, fish meal, apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, broilers
Colonization study of Salmonella Enteritidis in the fertile eggs
Mohammad Sadegh Madadi
Young chickens are more susceptible to Salmonella colonization than older chickens that have developed resistance with age as native microﬂora become established. Previous reports indicated that S. Enteritidis is the only human pathogen that contaminates eggs routinely even though the chicken farm environment is a rich source of other Salmonella serotypes. In this study, 200 fertile eggs inoculated with 20 CFU of S. Enteritidis, parent strain. High infectivity rate of Salmonella contamination were observed in the infected eggs; and more contaminated eggs and hatchability problems were observed. Using PCR test, three genes for S. Enteritidis identification were detected from isolated colonies of infected eggs.
Key words: Salmonella Enteritidis, fertile eggs, Chickens, Hatchability