2014, Number 4

Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 3(4), 2014


The effect of canola meal processing by heat, moisture and ammonium bicarbonate on metabolisable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicken

S. M. Hashemi*, and M Beiki



Nutritional value of canola meal can be improved by processing methods. In this experiment factorial arrangement of processing factors, including three levels of heat exposure (60, 90 & 120 °C), two levels of time (15 & 30 min.), two levels of moisture (wet & dry) and two levels of ammonium bicarbonate (0 & 3%) were considered. Twenty-four kinds of processed canola meal with 3 replicates were fed to 18 days old broilers (70% basal diet plus 30% processed canola meal) with row canola meal as a control group. At 21 days of age, samples of feed and feces were collected to measure the gross energy and nitrogen content. Apparent metabolisable energy of canola meal and nitrogen retention is calculated by marker assay method. Acid insoluble ash was used as indigestible marker. Results showed that N retention negatively affected as the temperature rises. Ammonium bicarbonate increased the apparent metabolizable energy of canola meal and nitrogen retention at P=0.06. In conclusion, to improving the apparent metabolizable energy and N retention, the best combination of factors was 60 °C heat exposure for 30 min and wet treatment without ammonium bicarbonate.

 Keywords: canola meal, processing, heat, ammonium bicarbonate


ادامه خواندن 2014, Number 4

2014, Number 3


Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 3(3), 2014


Morphometric variations among five Bhutanese indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus) 

N. Dorji*, and S. K. Sunar  



Morphometric characterization provides baseline information for initiating population’s improvement. Thus, the study aims to investigate variations of morphometric traits in five indigenous chickens of Bhutan. A total of 122  adult female birds belonging; Seim (Red Jungle-fowl type), Yuebjha Narp (Black), Khuilay (Naked neck), Phulom (Frizzle) and Shekheni (Short-legged) were included for live weight and linear body measurements. Descriptive and inferential statistics of SPSS 16 were used to determine the influence of bird type on some quantitative traits. Adult Seim was the heaviest (mean, 1.58; SE, 0.10 kg), followed by Naked neck (mean, 1.46; SE, 0.05 kg) while the lowest was Frizzle (mean, 1.36; SE, 0.04 kg). Mean body was the widest and narrowest for Seim (29.85 cm) and Shekheni (27.67 cm), respectively. In addition, lengths of body were longer and shorter in Seim (40.48 cm) and Shekheni (27.67 cm), respectively. On the contrary, the longest back length was observed in Shekheni (21.23 cm). Frizzle (11.55 cm) and Seim (11.53 cm) was bigger thigh circumference while Shekheni (10.84 cm) was low. Similarly, thigh lengths were the longest in Frizzle and Seim. Strong positive correlations for body weight and linear body measures were examined in all populations Seim and Naked neck had the best coefficient of correlations in studied traits. A cluster analysis could also classify the Bhutanese indigenous chickens into two main clusters; creeper (Shekheni) and non-creepers (Frizzle, Yuebjha Narp, Naked neck and Seim). These information may prove essential with any future research on local chickens of Bhutan.

Key words: Breeding strategy, income, indigenous chicken, sustainable


The Effect of Body Condition Score and Body Weight of Merghoz Goats on Production and Reproductive Performance 

M. M. Moeini*, R. Kachuee,and M. T. Jalilian



Two experiments were performed to determine the effect of body condition score (BCS) on Merghoz goats’ performance. In the first experiment, 80 goats (2-4 years old, 27-43 kg), and in the second experiment, 28 Merghoz goats (2-3 years old, 26-39 kg) were divided to 4 treatments groups according to their BCS (2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5). The number of kids born per kidding, kilogram kids born per goat mating, pregnancy period and kid’s birth weight were determined. Blood samples to monitor the changes of blood follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations were collected from goats, two weeks before expected kidding data and on kidding day. Blood metabolites such as glucose, total protein, albumin and globulin were determined. The results of the first experiment indicated that BCS=3.0 had a significant effect on the kilogram kids born per kilogram goat. Similarly, the kids born per kilogram goat were affected by BCS. The results of the 2nd experiment also indicated that goats with BCS = 3.0 (32-36 kg) had better performance in kids born per goat at mating and birth weight of kids was significantly affected by BCS of their dams. There was a significant effect of BCS on plasma FSH concentration in goats with BCS more than 3.0. In conclusion, BCS had a significant effect on kilogram kids born per goat, birth weight of kids and FSH concentration at mating and a score of 3.0 at mating time could optimize profitability of Merghoz goats and their kids.

Key words: body condition score, Body weight, Merghoz goats, production, reproductive performance


Small Intestine Morphology, Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Young Broilers Affected by Different Levels of Dietary Putrescine


S. M. Hashemi, T. C. Loh*, H. L. Foo, I. Zulkifli, and M. H. Bejo




 This experiment was conducted to investigate dietary putrescine effects on broiler performance. Treatments were 6 levels of putrescine (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 & 0.05 %) added to a basal diet and fed to 4-32 day old broilers. The weekly growth performance was recorded, and ileal digesta and small intestine samples were collected at the end of the 2nd and 3rd week of age. At 21 d, body weight and feed intake were increased with 0.03 and 0.01% dietary putrescine supplementation respectively, while feed conversion ratio was not affected. At younger age (14 d), decreasing effects of putrescence on BW and energy- protein digestibility were seen. Meantime, protein digestibility decreased at 0.04% putrescence at 14 days old chicks while at older age this effect was not seen, suggesting an interaction between the age and dietary putrescence effect. Duodenal villus height and crypt depth were increased significantly due to putrescine at both ages (14 and 21 days) as compared to control group. In conclusion, dietary putrescine may have an accelerating effect on the growth rate of birds since whilst body weight and feed intake improved feed conversion ratio remained unaffected. Dietary putrescine is positively effective on small intestine villus height and crypt depth, particularly at younger ages.

 Key words: Polyamines, Growth rate, Intestinal morphology, Digestibility


Multiplex-PCR Assay for detection of Salmonella typhimurium and  Salmonella enteritidis in poultry feedstuffs

N Nourmohamadi, B Shokrollahi*




Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR), the concurrent amplification of two or more polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products in the same reaction tube, can be applied to the rapid detection of pathogenic microorganisms in animal feedstuffs. Poultry feedstuffs has been implicated as important established source of infection to specific Salmonella serovars. Poultry feedstuffs can be an origin for transfer bacteria. In this study, 30 feedstuffs samples were collected from feed stocks of broiler chicken farms in Kermanshah province in the west of Iran. In order to isolate Salmonella, conventional cultural methods including pre-enrichment, enrichment and selective agar plating tests were performed. To confirm the identification of isolated colonies as Salmonella. and determining as Typhimurium and Enteritidis serovars, a M-PCR assay, using three pairs of primers were employed, S141 and S139 for InvA gene, specific for the genus of Salmonella spp. Fli15 and Tym for FliC gene, specific for Typhimurium serovar and Sef167 and Sef478 for sefA gene, specific for Enteritidisserovar. M-PCR results indicated that 3.3% of samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp. and confirmed that all contaminated samples belong to Salmonella typhimurium serovar and no contamination with Salmonella enteritidis has been detected. In conclusion, it is recommended that M-PCR method can be used as a viable alternative to traditional cultural methods for detection of poultry feedstuffs contamination by Salmonella serovars.

Key words: Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Multiplex PCR, Poultry feedstuffs


2014, Number 2

Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 3(2), 2014


Effect of feeding different processed pigeon PEA (Cajanus cajan) supplemented with Maxigrain® on the performance and carcass characteristics of weaner rabbits

A. Y. Aguda*, and J. J. Omage



This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of differently processed Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) with enzyme, Maxigrain® supplementation on the performance and carcass characteristic of weaner rabbits. The pigeon peas used were raw, boiled and soaked with and without Maxigrain® supplementation, respectively. A total of 42 weaner rabbits (6 weeks old) of mixed breed and sexes with average initial weight 450 g, were randomly assigned to seven – dietary treatments in a complete randomized design, consisted of 0%, 30% (raw with Maxigrain®), 30% (boiled with Maxigrain®), 30% (soaked with Maxigrain®), 30% (raw without Maxigrain®), 30% (boiled without Maxigrain®) and 30% (soaked without Maxigrain®) representing treatments T1(control diet), T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7, respectively. Each dietary treatment was replicated 6 times, with rabbits housed in individual cages. The trial lasted for 8 weeks. The average daily weight gains in treatments with pigeon pea based diets (T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7) were all similar while T1 had the lowest average daily weight gain. The feed to gain ratio and feed cost per kg gain were highest for T1 compared to the other treatments. The mortality was significantly higher in T4 compared to all other treatments. There was no significant difference in final weight, average daily feed intake, water intake, and water to feed ratio in all the treatments. There were significant differences in the pre-slaughter weight, slaughter weight, dressing percentage, head, skin, tail, liver, kidney, heart, lungs, empty intestine, stomach, heart and chest. The dressing percentage, head, kidney, thigh, were significantly lower in T6 compared to all other treatments. There were no significant differences in the carcass characteristics of the dressed weight, full intestine, length of intestine, length of intestine and loins. The results indicate that pigeon pea at 30% inclusion, either raw or processed with or without Maxigrain® can be used effectively to replace groundnut cake as protein source in rabbit nutrition.  Also, pigeon pea in rabbit nutrition will reduce the cost of production and does not have any harmful effect on the rabbit.

Key words: rabbit, pigeon pea, Maxigrain®, processing methods


Hemogram and antibody profiles of local and broiler chickens under different vaccination programs




The assessment of maternal immunity of poultry birds transferred to young chicks was carried out using both local breed and broiler chickens, with an objective to determine the antibody level pattern and hematological parameters of chickens in the first thirty one (31) days of life. One hundred and twenty birds were used for the study. Ninety (90) broilers and thirty (30) local breed chickens were grouped into four of 30 birds per group. Group 1 was local breed chickens only (LC), group 2 was vaccinated with “Primer” – Newcastle disease virus (SIM), group 3 was vaccinated with Primer and booster (Lasota) dose of Newcastle disease virus (DIM) and group 4 was non vaccinated broilers (NIM). Chickens were fed with standard feeds and adequate water ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected from the groups at every 72 hour interval using standard methods. The leukocyte count was higher among the groups, packed cell volume was unstable, but increased gradually with age, heterophil / lymphocyte (H/L) ratio was decreasing with age among groups. Unlike NIM and SIM, Immunoglobulin Y was raised following vaccination on day 21 in DIM group; it was gradually increased in LC with age. Immunoglobulin M was not significant between the groups. The maternal antibody in LC and DIM were statistically significant but there was no significant difference in hematological parameters of the birds used in this study irrespective of the species. NDV vaccination had no effect on packed cell volume and hemogram. H/L ratio and antibody level decreased with age, given that the birds were not immunologically challenged.

Keywords: Broilers, Hemogram, Local breed, Maternal immunity, Newcastle disease virus


Exogenous Enzyme Improves Immunocompetence in Laying Hens Fed Diets Containing Safflower Meal

A. Ehsani, A. H. Mahdavi*, B. Dolatkhah, and A. H. Samie



An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different levels of exogenous enzymes on egg quality characteristics and immunological responses of laying hens fed diets containing different levels of safflower meal. The 47-week old layers (Hy-Line W-36) were fed 10 experimental diets consisting five levels of safflower meal (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0%) and two levels of dietary exogenous enzyme (0.0 and 0.1% Bergazym P®) during the experimentation. The trial period lasted for a total of 10 weeks, and egg quality indices were measured as two 35 day experimental periods. After 48 and 55 days of experiment, birds were injected with 1 mL of 7% Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBC) intramuscularly. At the end of experiment, the antibody titer against SRBC and differential circulating leukocyte count were measured for investigating immune status. Least squares mean analysis showed that although the inner egg quality characteristics (yolk index and Haugh unit) were not influenced by dietary treatments, using the highest level of safflower meal caused remarkable decrease in eggshell weight and strength during the first 35-day experimental period. Nonetheless, these parameters showed tendency to decrease during the second trial period. The heterophils to lymphocytes ratio were significantly increased after feeding different levels of safflower meal and reach to the highest level in hens fed diet containing 10% of this meal. This response was due to the increase in heterophils population and contemporaneous decrease in lymphocytes percentage. Inclusion of 0.1% dietary enzyme had remarkable modulatory effect on heterophils count and the heterophils to lymphocytes ratio. Following the administration of dietary enzymes, the number of lymphocytes and thereby, the primary humoral immunity response increased significantly, however, this alteration had tendency to increase during the secondary immunity response against SRBS. Therefore, our results indicated that using high level of safflower meal (10%) in laying hens diet could have aversive effects on eggshell quality. Also, administration of dietary exogenous enzyme to the diets of laying hens would have beneficial effects on immunological responses, especially in terms of heterophil to lymphocyte ratio depression or improvement of humoral immunological functions

Key words: safflower meal, exogenous enzyme, laying hens, egg quality, immune responses


Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on nutritive value of safflower forage and silage

F. Asgharzadeh*, M. H. Fathi Nasri, M. A. Behdani



      This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on nutritive value of safflower forage and silage by in situ and in vitro methods. The safflower forage was harvested at flowering stage, chopped to 3-5 cm particles and then ensiled in the laboratory silos for 60 days. The experimental treatments included: 1. Unfertilized forage (control), 2. Phosphorus fertilized forage (100 kg per ha), 3. Nitrogen fertilized forage (300 kg per ha), and 4. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilized forage (300 kg N and 100 kg P per ha). The effect of Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on reduction of Dry mater, Neutral detergent fiber and Acid detergent fiber and increasing of ash, Calcium and Phosphorus of forage and silage was significant. The Nitrogen fertilizer significantly increased Crude protein, Non-protein nitrogen and Buffer soluble protein and decreased the Acid detergent insoluble nitrogen content of silage. The Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers caused the significant increase of the degradability of both safflower forage and silage. The highest production of gas after 96 h of incubation belonged to treatment 4 and the lowest was for treatment 1 (for both forage and silage). The effect of Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on gas production of forage and silage was significant. Applying the Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers caused the significant increase of the gas production parameters including b and c fractions and also Metabolism energy content of forage and silage. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers application caused the production of the higher quality forage for making silage and also improving the Dry mater digestibility of silage.

Keywords: Nitrogen fractionations, Ruminal degradability, Gas production, Safflower forage


2014, Number 1

  Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 3(1), 2014


Atypical Actinobacillosis in a Dairy Cow

G. Farjani Kish*,A. Tabatabaei Naeini, F. Namazi, ,Y. Ariyzand



Actinobacillosis is an infectious, chronic, generally non-fatal disease caused by Actinobacillus lignieresii. The etiologic agent is a part of the oral flora and causes pyogranulomatous lesions of the soft tissues. A 5-year old, approximately 500 kg cross-breed Holstein cow was presented for the treatment of a large, ulcerated and hemorrhagic mass at the left side of the neck in vicinity of the jugular furrow. Anamnesis indicated that the condition began three months previously as a small, walnut-size swelling that gradually enlarged over this period. After surgical resection of the mass, histological assessment revealed multiple pyogranulomatous foci-contained radiating eosinophilic clubs surrounded by many neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages and connective tissue. Clinical manifestations, bacteriological and pathological examinations of biopsy confirmed atypical actinobacillosis. In this case, the route of entry of organisms probably had been an abrasion or wound in the skin of the neck.

Key words: Actinobacillus lignieresii, Pyogranulomatous, Bacteriological, Pathologic, Biopsy


Achievement to the goat’s spermatogonial stem cells from embryos

                Alireza Hasani Bafarani, Ziaoddin Mirhoseini, Farid Heidari



The present study reports an easy approach to obtain an abundant origin of pluripotent spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) from the goat fetal testis tissue. These cells showed tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase activity and also express three markers of pluripotency (NANOG, SOX2 and OCT4) which are also expressed in embryonic stem cells. We found that these cells can be used for co-culturing with the inactivated goat embryonic fibroblast for several passages without differentiation or changing in shape. It was also found out that, these cells can remain viable at -70 °C one month by using DMSO.

Key Words: Fetal spermatogonial stem cells, Germline stem cells, Goat embryo


Effect of xylanase and cellulase supplementation on growth performance, volatile fatty acids and caecal bacteria of broiler chickens fed with palm kernel meal-based diet

Sharmila, K. Azhar, M. N. Hezmee, and A. A. Samsudin*



In this study, the effect of xylanase and cellulase supplementation in palm kernel meal (PKM) based diet on growth performance, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and the caecal bacterial populations of broiler chickens were investigated. Seventy five day old male Cobb broiler chicks were randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups receiving T1 (20% PKM-based diet without enzyme), T2 (20% PKM-based diet with xylanase) and T3 (20% PKM-based diet with cellulase). Each enzyme was supplemented at an amount of 200U/kg of feed. Weekly body weight gain and feed intake were recorded. All chickens were slaughtered on day 35 and the caecum content was aseptically collected for VFAs quantification and bacterial enumeration. Supplementation of xylanase and cellulase in PKM diets had different effect on the growth performance, the number of caecal bacterial population and VFAs produced. A significant reduction in the cumulative feed intake of birds fed cellulase-supplemented PKM compared to xylanse-supplemented and unsupplemented PKM diet was observed. However, the final body weights gain and cumulative feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly different between the treatment groups. Determination of VFAs production of the caecal contents demonstrated a significant difference in the production of iso-butyric and n-valeric acid among treatment groups. The number of total viable bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coliform in caecal samples were also enumerated. Significant difference was observed in the number of caecal bacteria population between the treatment groups. The effect of xylanase and cellulase on weight gain of broiler chickens was strongly related to the feed intake rather than due to the decrease in the number of pathogenic bacteria in the caeca. Xylanase supplementation was beneficial in enhancing cumulative feed intake, weight gain and FCR of the broiler chickens, but did not entirely reduce the number of pathogenic caecal bacteria. However, cellulase supplementation reduced all parameters observed for growth performance and the number of caecal bacteria.

Key words: Xylanase, Cellulase, Palm Kernel Meal, Bacteria, Broiler


Mycological and pathological study of broiler mortalities associated with clinically apparent respiratory diseases

Madadi M. S*,Ashrafi Helan. J , Zare. P



In this study, 1136 tissue samples from mortalities of 230 suspected broiler farms were cultured and subjected to isolation, laboratory and histopathology diagnosis of Fungi species. Four fungi species were isolated from respiratory system of necropsied broilers; they were Aspergillus fumigatus, Mucor spp, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. At necropsy, extensive yellowish white caseous miliary nodules in the lung and air sacs were seen. Histopathologic examination of tissue sections revealed granulomas in lungs and thickened abdominal air sac membranes. The results of this study indicated that fungal species are present in birds with apparent respiratory diseases. It is very important to be aware of the high prevalence of these organisms, the sources and points at which the chicks become infected with the organisms as well as the diseases they can cause and possibly put them under surveillance as important pathogens of poultry.

Key words: Fungal, Broiler, Isolation, Histopathology, Mortality


2013, Number 4

  Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 2(4), 2013


Feeding frequency interfacing tradition and modernity in dairy production: feeding behavior insights

A. Nikkhah



Feeding frequency (FF) remains an esoteric strategy in modern dairy production, because of multiple management factors affecting cow responses. The objective was to determine FF effects on eating, ruminating, and chewing behaviors of dairy cows in a non-competitive environment. Eight multiparous, early-lactation Holstein cows housed in individual box stalls received either once daily (1×) at 07:00 h or 4 times daily (4×) at 01:00, 07:00, 13:00 and 19:00 h a chopped alfalfa hay based total mixed ration (TMR) in a crossover design with two 20-d periods. Once instead of four times feeding significantly increased dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 20.0 ± 0.5 kg/d) and elongated the first meal (106 versus 49 ± 21.5 min). Daily time spent eating (303 ± 37 min/d), ruminating (314 ± 34 min/d), total chewing (617 ± 55 min/d), laying (562 ± 57 min/d) and standing (666 ± 49 min/d) were not different between treatments. Findings provide novel evidence on feeding behavior response to FF in early-lactation cows under noncompetitive individual feeding and housing.

Key words: eating behavior, ruminating, chewing, feeding frequency, early-lactation cow

Abbreviations: DMI, dry matter intake; FF, feeding frequency; FML, first meal length; peNDF, physically effective neutral detergent fiber; TMR, total mixed ration.


Mycobiota and Toxigenecity Profile of Aspergillus flavus Recovered from Food and Poultry Feed Mixtures in Cameroon

Jean Raphaël Kana*, Benoit Gbemenou Joselin Gnonlonfin, Jagger Harvey,

James Wainaina, Immaculate Wanjuki, Robert A. Skilton, and Alexis Teguia



A total of 202 poultry feed and its raw ingredients collected from different agroecological zones of Cameroon were examined for total mycoflora and the ability of A. flavus isolates to produces aflatoxin B1. Dilution plating was used for fungal isolation. The mean fungal contamination levels were significantly higher in maize and peanut meal as compared with broiler and layer feeds. In peanut meal and poultry feed, the most representative fungi were A. flavus, A. niger, A. oryzae, F. solani, F. verticilloides, Penicillium spp, and Rhizopus spp. Of all the fungi encountered, A. flavus was encountered in 90% of white maize and 28.5% of yellow maize samples. The frequency of isolation of the most representative fungi in peanut meal, broiler and layer feed was 100, 94, and 76.5% for A. flavus and 70.6, 82.3, and 76.5% for Penicillium spp, respectively. Molecular identification using the Intergenic Spacer Gene (IGS) for aflatoxin biosynthesis confirmed all fungi identified morphologically as A. flavus. Aflatoxin B1 analysis showed that all the A. flavus isolates encountered were aflatoxin B1 producers. Conclusion from this study indicate that the use of peanut meal in poultry feed is risky, and can impact poultry health and economic benefits.

Key words: aflatoxin, animal feed, fungal contamination, toxigenic


Effects of dietary administration of multi-enzyme on productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of safflower meal


A. Ehsani, A. H. Mahdavi*, A. H. Samie and B. Dolatkhah


The present study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of multi-enzyme on productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of safflower meal. A total of 250 Leghorn laying hens (Hy-Line W-36) 47 weeks-old were randomly assigned into 10 experimental treatments with 5 replicates of 5 birds each. Experimental treatments consisted of five safflower meal levels (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 g/100g of diet) with and without multi-enzyme (Bergazym P®,0.0 and 0.1 g/100g of diet) as a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement that fed during a 10 weeks feeding trial. During the experimental period, eggs were collected and weighed daily, and feed consumption was weekly recorded. Then, the productive performance indices including feed consumption, egg production percentage, egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were reported as 14 d intervals and during entire trial period. Feeding laying hens 2.5% and 5% safflower meal showed tendency to increased egg mass in the entire experimental period. This improvement was largely due to the marginal increase in egg production percentage. The best FCR was found in birds fed on diets contained in 0.0% to 5.0 % safflower meal. Feed conversion ratio increased significantly after feeding at least 7.5 % safflower meal. Increase in FCR was due to the trend in decreased egg production and contemporaneous increase in feed consumption. On the other hand, using multi-enzyme did not improve FCR. Adding multi-enzyme increased the egg production percentage and egg mass. Therefore, our results indicated that safflower meal can be included in diets of laying hens up to 5% with no adverse effect on performance. Also, administration of cocktail commercial enzyme to the diets of laying hens would have beneficial effects on productive performance, especially in terms of egg production.

Key words: safflower meal, multi-enzyme, laying hens, performance


Prevalence of Abomasal Nematodes in slaughtered Goats at industrial Urmia slaughterhouse, West Azerbaijan province, Northwest of Iran


Mohammad Hakimzadegan* Mahmoud Khalilzadeh Khosroshahi


Parasitic infections are generally regarded as the most prevalent and important health problems of grazing ruminants in Iran. Gastro-Intestinal nematode parasite infections are a major constraint to the small ruminants (sheep and goat) industry and cause to reduce weight gains, growth rate, nutrient utilization and less meat, wool and milk production, also increased costs of management, treatment and even mortality in several cases. A study was carried out to estimate the prevalence abomasal nematodes of slaughtered goats at the Industrial Urmia slaughterhouse from March 2012 to March 2013. During the study period, 130 abomasums of goats were examined according to standard procedures. Four genera of nematodes were identified in the goats abomasum with an overall prevalence of 46.14%. The specific prevalence observed was Ostertagia ostertagi (12.30%), Ostertagia circumcincta. (7.69%), Haemonchus contortus (16.92%) and Marshallagia marshalli (9.23%). Among the species found Haemonchus contortus was the most prevalent and frequent species. No significant correlation was observed between the prevalence of infection with seasons and ages.

Keywords: Abomasal, Nematodes, Goat, Industrial Urmia slaughterhouse, Iran


All Contents

The Relationship among Total Dissolved Solid in Water and Blood Macro Mineral Concentrations and Health Status of Dairy Cattle in Qom Area

A. Alizadeh*, M. Mahmoodi, A. Ghazikhani Shad, and S. Jalali

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Effects of calcium salts of fatty acids (Megalac) on reproductive performance and blood parameters of Kalkohi ewes

A. Alizadeh*, F. Azizi, K. Karkoodi, S. Jalali, and M. Ghoreishi

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Evaluation of different plating medias and PCR in the detecting of Salmonella Enteritidis from eggs laid by experimentally infected hens

M. S. Madadi*, M. Azari, A. Yazdani

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Detection of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in serum of broiler chickens of Iran

A. Ghaniei*, N. Mohammadzadeh

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Spawning cycle, GSI index and length maturity of Deep flounder in northwest of Persian Gulf, Iran

S. A. Hashemi*, S. A. Taghavimotlagh, A. Hedayati and R. Ghorbani

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Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum in one day old broiler chickens in Libya

F. S. Elgnay* and S. M. Azwai

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Deep Septic Arthritis of the Fetlock Joint in two Dairy Cows: Clinical, Radiographic and Pathomorphologic Findings

M. Nouri*, S.H. Marjanmehr, I. Nowrouzian

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The effect of autogenous platelet rich plasma on experimentally induced osteoarthritis in rabbit’s stifles joint: a radiological assessment

M. Kalbkhani, S. N. Dehghani*, A. R. Najafpour, N. Ghorbanzadeh

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Electrosurgical Excision of a large uniform Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT) in a spayed bitch: a case report

H. Soleimani Savadkoohi, S.N. Dehghani*, F. Namazi, M. Ahrari Khafi, Y. Jalali


2013, Number 3

  Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 2(3), 2013


On farm evaluation of group treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cows

I. Nowrouzian, M. Nouri*, F. Zibaee, and F. Katouli



The aim of this blind and longitudinal farm study was to evaluate the efficacy of Provita Hoofsure Endurance (PHE) foot wash solutions in reducing the prevalence of lameness due to digital dermatitis (DD) in dairy cows. Cows (n = 182) from three commercial dairy herds of closed type were diagnosed by lameness and pain scoring, with lesions consistent with DD in different stage of development. On the basis of locomotion scoring system (1-5), the prevalence of lameness was between 28.8% and 43.6%. Cows were considered for individual evaluation based on significant Kappa-value and restrained in a chute for lesion type (0-4), color (0-2) and size (0-2) scoring prior to application of PHE and at the end of trial in walk-through footbaths or group topical spray in milking parlor. Cows were allocated to one of two groups: cows in group 1 were treated with PHE 2.0% twice a day for 3 consecutive days in footbath, and treatment repeated again after 2 weeks with PHE 1.0% twice a day for 3 consecutive days. In group 2, 2.0% solution was sprayed on the palmar surface of the feet. Changes in each score between initial and final scoring were calculated and the comparison was made statistically using non-parametric U-test with 0.05 level of significance. From the results of this farm study, it is concluded that the application of PHE alleviates lameness significantly at the herd- or the cow-level as part of a control program of DD.

Key words: digital dermatitis, cow, lesion, footbaths, group topical spray


Radiological study of the effect of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) on experimentally induced Osteoarthritis in Guinea Pig’s stifle joint

N. Seydi, and S. N. Dehghani*



The purpose of this radiologic, longitudinal study was to estimate the effects of the platelet rich plasma (PRP) on improvement of the defective articular cartilage in an osteoarthritis (OA) model. The PRP is an autologous product that concentrates a high number of platelets in a small volume of plasma. It mimics the last step of the coagulation cascade, leading to formation of a fibrin clot, which consolidates and adheres to the application site in a short period of time. Twenty adult guinea pigs (treatment group, n = 10; control group, n = 10) were anesthetized and the anterior cruciate ligament of the left knee was transected through a para-patellar approach. The animals were allowed to resume normal cage activity for 12 weeks. For the preparation of PRP, 2 ml blood was collected into a Na-citrate tube by direct heart puncture. Twelve weeks post-operation PRP was injected into the OA joint of the treatment group only. The animals were observed for further 8 weeks. At 20 weeks radiological score of OA increased in control group. Reduction in the degree of osteophyte formation, and subchondral bone sclerosis were detected in the PRP-treated joints. In conclusion, this study shows beneficial effects of the PRP on improvement of the defective articular cartilage in the OA joint.

Keywords: Platelet rich plasma, Osteoarthritis, Stifle joint, Guinea pigs, Radiological study


Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale isolates from turkey, quail, partridge and domestic pigeon in Iran

S. Mirzaie*, and M. Hassanzadeh



Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a respiratory pathogen which has been isolated throughout the world from numerous bird species. The present study was designed to investigate molecular and phylogenetic characterization of ORT isolates from turkey, quail, partridge and domestic pigeon. For this purpose, one bacterial strain from each bird species which was isolated in a previous work was compared with chicken and some other bird species isolates. Isolates were streaked on 5% sheep blood agar containing gentamicin. Genomic DNA was extracted from fresh cultures by boiling of bacteria suspension. PCR was performed by using of specific primers for partial amplification of 16S rRNA gene. PCR products of ORT isolates were sequenced in both directions by an automatic sequencer. Our ORT isolates showed high identity (98.1% to 100%) in sequence of 16S rRNA gene to related data in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed that Iranian turkey and pigeon isolates were classified into a distinctive cluster with pigeon isolates from Taiwan, while Iranian quail and partridge isolates showed more relationship with the native isolates of chicken as well as some foreign isolates from different sources in the GenBank.

Keywords: Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, turkey, quail, partridge, pigeon, PCR


Laemobothrion maximum (chewing lice) in Iranian Golden Eagles 

H.R. Azizi, M. Adel*, E. Sayahi, A.K. Zamani Moghadam, A. Esmailian Dehkordi, M. Hematzadeh



     The Golden Eagle species have a wide geographical distribution in Iran. Some species of these birds are native and living in many aeries of Iran with different distribution. This study was carried out on 26 Iranian Golden Eagle that were referred for treatment to the poultry clinic of the veterinary faculty, university of Shahrekord. Twenty eight chewing-lice specimens were collected on the body surfaces of the birds. The parasites were fixed in a 75 % filtered ethanol solution, cleared in 85 % lactic acid and mounted on slides using Hoyer fluid. They were mounted on slides separately after being cleared in lactophenol. Laemobothrion maximum were identified by microscopically examination, also one abnormal shape of this lice was observed.

Key Words: Laemobothrion maximum, Iranian Golden Eagles, lice.