2013, Number 2

Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 2(2), 2013

Effect of cholecalciferol (D3) replacement with 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol on broiler breeder hen’s performance

M. Mottaghitalab*, M. Hormozdi, and A. Kamyab



This experiment was carried out to compare the effects of 1α-hydroxy cholecalciferol replacement with cholecalciferol on broiler breeder hen’s performance. 288 Ross”308″ broiler breeder hens at 57 weeks of age were allocated to a randomized complete design with six treatments and four replication of twelve females and 1 male each. Treatments include: 3500 IU/kg vitamin D3 (T1), 3340 (T2), 3300 (T3), 3260 and 3180 IU D3 (T5). The incomplete levels of the vitamin D3 in T2, T3, T4 and T5 supplemented by adding 1α(OH)D3 to the diets at levels 10, 12.5, 15 and 20 gr/ton, respectively and treatment with no D3 supplementation. Results showed, compared to lower levels of the same metabolites and also as compared with the hens fed D3, significant reduction in egg production when 20 g/Ton 1α(OH)D3 was added in diet; however, no differences were observed in egg weight, egg specific gravity, hatchability, early, middle and late embryo mortality and piped egg, plasma calcium and phosphorous concentration and tibia ash between treatments supplemented with combination of vitamin D3 and 1α(OH)D3 as compared with D3. The hens fed diet without supplement vitamin D showed significant decrease in egg production and egg mass, egg specific gravity, hatchability and significant increase in feed conversion ratio and early and late embryonic mortality, without any effect on other traits. In conclusion, replacement of 1α(OH)D3 with D3 in broiler breeder diets have no beneficial effect on egg production, egg shell quality and hatchability. It seems, that hens are able to metabolize sufficient 1, 25(OH)2D3 from dietary vitamin D3 to meet requirement.

Key words: 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol, Broiler breeder, Vitamin D


The Use of Phytase and Low Phosphorus Levels in Broiler Diets with Different Metabolizable Energy Levels

M. Beiki*, S. M. Hashemi, and A. Yaghoobfar



The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary available phosphorus (AP), phytase supplementation and metabolizable energy (ME) levels on performance and bone and blood characteristics of broiler chickens. An experiment in completely randomized design with 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement were conducted, in which two phytase levels (0 and 500 mg/kg), two AP levels (NRC and 15% lower) and two ME levels were used. The ME ratios to CP and other nutrients (except phosphorus) were equal in all treatments. Average weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of starter, grower and total rearing period were analyzed. Bone calcium and phosphorus, blood calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase at 6 weeks of age were analyzed. Based on growth parameters, low AP level had equal or better effects than high AP level. Chickens fed diets with high ME levels had better performance. Phytase had no significant effects on weight gain, whereas it enhanced FCR. Adding phytase in low energy diets improved body weight gain and FCR. Phytase in diets with low AP levels significantly enhanced FCR. Using low AP in high and low energy diets, caused better FCR in starter and whole rearing phase consequently. Available phosphorus and phytase supplementations had no significant effects on tibia ash; however, it was inversely affected by low AP level. The results of this experiment indicated that it is possible to decrease dietary AP level up to 15 percent less than NRC recommends. Adding AP and phytase did not significantly affect growth parameters of the chicks fed low energy diets.

Key Words: Available Phosphorus, Metabolizable energy, Phytase, Broiler



Timing of feeding orchestrates circadian post-feeding intake rhythms in once-daily fed dairy cows

A. Nikkhah



The objective was to establish effects of feed presentation time and dietary forage to concentrate ratio on circadian postprandial rhythms of feed intake in lactating cows. Four multiparous and four primiparous Holstein cows were fed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments) a higher (HC, forage to concentrate ratio = 38.5:61.5) or a lower (LC, forage to concentrate ratio = 50.6:49.4) concentrate total mixed ration (TMR) at either 21:00 h or 09:00 h. A metabolic acquisition system was used to monitor continuous feed intake electronically. Feeding at 21:00 h vs. 09:00 h increased feed intake within 3 h post-feeding, from 26 to 37% of total daily intake; with daily dry matter intake remaining unchanged. Results establish that evening instead of morning feeding increased eating rate shortly post-feeding, and thus, is a key regulator of postprandial circadian intake rhythms in lactating dairy cows.

Key words: Intake rhythm, Feeding time, Chronophysiology, Dairy cow


Electrosurgical Excision of a large uniform Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT) in a spayed bitch: a case report


H. Soleimani Savadkoohi, S.N. Dehghani*, F. Namazi, M. Ahrari Khafi, Y. Jalali



   Canine transmissible venereal tumors (TVT) are cauliflower-like, pedunculated, and nodular, papillary, or multilobulated in appearance. The presenting bitch had a serosanguineous vulvar discharge and big mass in the perinea area. After initial preparation, sonography and radiological imaging was performed to find out any metastatic mass in abdomen or thorax region. Following general anesthesia the tumor was excised by electrosurgical technique. The resected tumor was sent for histopathological evaluation. A chemotherapy regimen was set up for the dog following the operation. A check up six months later didn’t show any recurrence of the mass in this case. This was a rare case of TVT in a spayed bitch.

Key words: Transmissible Venereal Tumor, electro surgery, bitch


2013, Number 1

Spawning cycle, GSI index and length maturity of Deep flounder in northwest of Persian Gulf, Iran

                  S. A. Hashemi*, S. A. Taghavimotlagh, A. Hedayati and R. Ghorbani



During this study from December 2009 to November 2011, 363 Deep flounder fish were caught and their weights and lengths were measured. Total number of caught fishes included: 18 males, 200 females and 155 immature fishes. The mean, maximum and minimum total lengths were 264 ± 57, 415, and 115 mm, respectively. The mean, maximum and minimum total weights for this species were 238 ± 150, 827, and 14 g, respectively. The length-weight relationships were calculated as W = 0.000007FL3.09 (n = 200, R2=  0.96) for females, W = 0.00002FL2.90 (n = 18, R2 = 0.94) for males and W = 0.000009FL3.04 (n = 363, R2 = 0.96) for total fishes verifying calculated b with 3, using Students t-test. There was no significant difference between calculated b and 3, and growth pattern was isometric. The mean values of condition factor (K), hepatosomatic index (HIS) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were 1.25 ± 0.43, 1.13 ± 0.04, and 1.14 ± 0.97 for total fishes, respectively. The highest values of K, HIS, and GSI were observed in February, August and April; whereas the lowest values were observed in January, December and January. Mean GSI value indicated that spawning time were occurred during April to May. Using one-way ANOVA Test, the relationship between GSI index and temperature and salinity was significant. The mean size at first sexual maturity (Lm) was 237 mm for total fishes.

Key words: Deep flounder, Gonado somatic index, Hepatosomatic index, condition factor


Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum in one day old broiler chickens in Libya

F. S. Elgnay* and S. M. Azwai



The aim of this study was to carry out a serological survey of antibodies against Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) in 1500 one day old broiler chickens sera were examined by serum plate agglutination test. Antibodies against MG and MS were detected 3.4% and 6.4%, respectively. The seroprevalence of MG was 5.2% in chickens from imported fertile eggs and 0% in chickens from local fertile eggs, whereas for MS was 9.3% in chickens from imported fertile eggs and 0.8% in chicks from local fertile eggs.

Key words: Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Serum plate agglutination test, Chickens, Libya


Deep Septic Arthritis of the Fetlock Joint in two Dairy Cows: Clinical, Radiographic and Pathomorphologic Findings

M. Nouri*, S.H. Marjanmehr, I. Nowrouzian



The case included two Holstein cows presen­ting chronic septic arthritis of the fetlock joint. There were considerable oval swelling in the fetlock region, presence of pain, severe lameness, and involvement of one hind foot, absence of pastern swelling and interdigital space involvement. In one of cows, early bovine digital dermatitis lesions were found incidentally during examination. Radiographic images depicted a quite wide range of radiographic signs such as soft tissue swelling, new bone formation and osteolysis. Gross necropsy revealed tendovaginitis and the consistent purulent discharge was confined to the fetlock zone. After necropsy, the sample was selected for further procedures by putrefaction. The naked bone showed considerable bone changes. High standards of building design and monitoring seems to have prevented premature culling in cows with severe digital lesion. The chances of restoring the productivity of the animal depend largely on accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Key words: cull, deep sepsis, fetlock, lameness, swelling, tendovaginitis


The effect of autogenous platelet rich plasma on experimentally induced osteoarthritis in rabbit’s stifles joint: a radiological assessment.

M. Kalbkhani, S. N. Dehghani*, A. R. Najafpour, N. Ghorbanzadeh



      Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis and the major cause of chronic disability in musculoskeletal mobility in the elderly populations worldwide. In this study, we used scaffold free authogenous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in an experimental animal model of osteoarthritis (OA) by direct intra articular injection. Thirty white New Zealand adult rabbits of both sexes were used in this study. Osteoarthritis was induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection of the left knee joints. The rabbits were divided into three groups randomly; Eight weeks after operation, a single dose (0.5 ml) of plate rich plasma (PRP) was delivered to the injured knee by direct intra articular injection (group 1, the treatment group). The preventive group received the same amount of PRP right after operation. The control group received no treatment. The knees were examined on 8, 12 and 16 weeks after the surgery. The repairing process was investigated radiologically. Radiological assessment confirmed development of OA changes after 8 weeks in rabbits of group 1 and 2. Rabbits received PRP (group 1, the treatment group) showed lower degree of cartilage degeneration, osteophyte formation, and subchondral sclerosis compared to the control group on 16 weeks after surgery. In the preventive group, there was no OA development. PRP could be a valuable medium and the promising source for the treatment of osteoarthritis as well as for the prevention of the development of OA.

Key words:  osteoarthritis, platelet rich plasma, radiology, stifle joint, prevention

Instruction to Authors

Instructions to Authors

Manuscripts for Research, Review, Case Report, and Short Communication submitted to Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences should be divided into the following sections:

    • Title page
    • Abstract
    • Key words
    • Introduction
    • Materials and Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Conclusions
    • Acknowledgements
    • References
    • Tables and Figures


  • Title page

The title should appear on a separate page which should then followed by list of all the authors and their affiliations. The title of the paper (font size 12) should be in bold face; the first letter of the article title and proper names are capitalized and the remainder of the title is lowercase. Under the title, names of the authors in bold face, upper case (font size 11) followed by the affiliations in normal face lower case (font size 10). Affiliations should be preceded by superscript numbers corresponding to the author list. An asterisk (*) should be placed after the corresponding authors and indicated by a footnote named “Corresponding Author” where name, the complete postal address, telephone and fax numbers as well as e-mail address are given.

The running head of not more than 50 characters should be placed across the top of the title page. The running head is centered and all uppercase.

  • Abstract

This section should start on a new page and should not exceed 300 words. The abstract should give major objectives, materials, results, conclusions, and practical applications of the research. Avoid abbreviation, diagram and references in the abstract, and exclude statements of statistical probability (e.g., P < 0.05).


  • Key words

Authors should give 2 to 4 key words which can identify the most important subjects covered by the paper. They should be typed in lowercase letters and separated by commas. They should be singular should be placed at the end of the abstract.


  • Introduction

The manuscript should include a brief introduction stating the purpose of the investigation and outlining the essential background and stating the nature of the hypothesis under consideration.

  • Materials and Methods

This section should provide sufficient details of the materials and instruments used, and techniques employed to carry out the research.

  • Results

This section should state the results and draw attention in the text to important details shown in tables and figures (tables and figures should be designed to maximize the comprehension of the experimental data).


  • Discussion

This section should explain clearly the interpreted results and should place them in the context of the existing knowledge in the field.

  • Conclusions

The section should be used to briefly summarize the main findings of the study.


  • Acknowledgment

This section should be kept at the end of the manuscript before reference section to acknowledge funding, or significant contribution to the research.


  • References

In the body of the manuscript, refer to authors as follows: Sara and Farrel (2005) or Sara and Farrel (2005 and 2007), and where there are more than 2 authors of one article, the first author’s name is followed by the abbreviation et al. as follow: Farrel et al. (2005). If the authors’ names should be included in parentheses, the requested format is (Sara and Farrel, 2005; Farrel et al., 2008). If there are two or more publications by the same author or set of authors in the same year shall be differentiated by adding lowercase letters after the date (e.g. Farrel, 2007a,b).

The references section is merely a list of the sources were cited with the text. The list should be alphabetical by authors’ last names, and then chronologically. All authors’ names should appear in the reference section. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. The name of a journal should be abbreviated according to the conventional ISO abbreviations used by PubMed: (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=journals).

References should be given in the following form:

For journal reference:

Smith, K. L., M. R. Waldron, J. K. Drackley, M. T. Socha, and T. R. Overton. 2005. Performance of dairy cows as affected by prepartum dietary carbohydrate source and supplementation with chromium throughout the transition period. J. Dairy Sci. 88:255-263.

For book reference:

Underwood, E. J., and N. F. Suttle. 1999. The Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. 3rd ed. CABI publishing, NY, USA.

For chapters in book reference:

Simkiss, K., and T. G. Taylor. 1971. Shell formation. Pages 1331-1343 in Physiology and Biochemistry of the Domestic Fowl. Vol. 3. D. J. Bell and B. M. Freeman, ed. Academic Press. London. UK.

For conference reference:

Kawashima, C., S. Nagashima, T. Shimizu, M. Matsui, A. Miyamoto, and K. Kida. 2008. Effect of exogenous estradiol on plasma metabolic hormone concentrations in the female calf. Page 50 in Proc. 6th International Congress on Farm Animal Endocrinology. Roanoke, Virginia, USA.

  • Tables and Figures

Tables and figures should be self-explanatory and separate pages should be used for each of them. Each figure and table must have a reference in the text and should be numbered in accordance with their appearance in text. The legends of all figures should be given on a separate page after the list of references. Tables and figures should be included at the end of the manuscript.

2012, Number 1

The Relationship among Total Dissolved Solid in Water and Blood Macro Mineral Concentrations and Health Status of Dairy Cattle in Qom Area

A. Alizadeh, M. Mahmoodi, A. Ghazikhani Shad, and S. Jalali



Dairy farms in some arid areas around the world have to use drinking water that contained elevated total dissolved solids (TDS); however, very limited data is available concerning water TDS effects on health status and blood mineral levels of cattle. The aim of this study was to compare 3 dairy cattle groups in several dairy farms with different drinking water TDS: High (HTDS; >4000 ppm), Medium (MTDS; 1500-3000 ppm), and Low (LTDS; ≈ 490 ppm). Metabolic disorders record and some management information of each herd during five years were collected and some Holstein dairy herd in Qom (n = 10) were assigned to 3 groups. Moreover, six same dairy cows were selected from each TDS group and blood and feed samples were collected twice a week. Urine samples were taken from the dry cows and urine pH was measured. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Although water TDS range was between 500 and 4500 ppm, dry cows urine pH was unaltered by water TDS and health problems are not common in this area. Blood calcium concentrations increased linearly as TDS increased (P < 0.05). Similarly, blood potassium concentrations were affected by TDS, whereas blood Mg and Na contents were unaltered by TDS. Negligible elevated some mineral concentrations in blood whereas the water TDSs are dramatically different show necessity of revision of mineral supplementation or providing high quality water to decrease metabolic stress in dairy cattle.

Key words: Water TDS, metabolic disorders, blood mineral, dairy cattle, arid area


Effects of calcium salts of fatty acids (Megalac) on reproductive performance and blood parameters of Kalkohi ewes

A. Alizadeh, F. Azizi, K. Karkoodi, S. Jalali, and M. Ghoreishi



To determine the effects of Megalac addition on Iranian ewes’ reproductive parameters, a complete randomized design was used. Multiparous Kalkohi ewes (n = 32; 3 years old) were randomly assigned to 2 groups which consumed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous control (C) or Megalac (M; 5% Megalac in diet DM) diet. All ewes were synchronized by prostaglandin injection. Blood samples were collected from d 8, 10, and 12 of estrus cycle. Diets offered 4 wk prior to mating and up to 4 wk after mating and 2 weeks before parturition. Pregnancy, lambing and twining rate were not significantly affected by fat inclusion in ewe diet (P ³ %5). Similarly, pregnancy length was unaltered by treatment (P ³ %5). Lambing crop was affected by diet fat (P £ %5). Cholesterol concentration significantly increased as Megalac added to the diet (52.7 vs. 49.7 mg/dl in M and C, respectively; P £ %5), whereas P4 concentration was similar between M and C group in d 8, 10 and 12 of estrus cycle (3.80 and 3.81 nmol/L for M and C, respectively; P ³ %5). This experiment suggests that fatty acid content and profile of this level of Megalac may be insufficient for improving ewes’ reproduction performance, but 2.5 % Megalac in ewes’ diet DM before parturition could improve lamb weight. The lack of changes in P4 concentrations alongside the increasing of blood cholesterol did not support cholesterol and P4 relation. However, further studies are needed to determine impact of various fat sources and levels on physiological responses in ewes.

Key words: Megalac, reproduction, cholesterol, progesterone, ewe


Evaluation of different plating medias and PCR in the detecting of Salmonella Enteritidis from eggs laid by experimentally infected hens

M. S. Madadi, M. Azari, A. Yazdani, A. A. Shekarchi



Salmonellosis is one of the most important food-borne diseases. Outbreaks of Salmonellosis are mainly related to the consumption of contaminated eggs or egg-products and, less frequently, of poultry meat.  In this study fifty 29-week-old broiler breeder hens were randomly divided in two groups of 25 birds. One group of birds inoculated orally with 10log10 CFU and other group inoculated intravenously with 6log10 CFU of S. Enteritidis parent strain bacteria. During 35 days of experimental period, produced eggs were cultured using different medias and S.Enteritidis was detected using different cultural and PCR method.  SE was isolated during 32.5 % of experimental days and more isolation rate of Salmonella was during the first two weeks of post infection period. In contrast, using pre-enrichment media resulted more isolation rate of Salmonella cells and SS agar was more sensitive than BG agar. PCR was more sensitive than cultural methods for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis from contaminated eggs.

Key words: Salmonella Enteritidis, PCR, Culture, hen


Detection of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in serum of broiler chickens of Iran

A. Ghaniei, N. Mohammadzadeh



Newcastle disease (ND) is a common problem in poultry farms of Iran. Several serological and molecular tools are applied to diagnose the infection and predict its effects. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) is a serologic test that commonly used in diagnostic laboratories. In order to determine NDV antibody status in broiler flocks of West and East Azarbayjan at the end of rearing period, 383 blood samples collected from 2 slaughterhouses in West Azarbayjan and subjected to HI test. 40.6% of samples were positive for NDV antibodies. High prevalence of NDV infections in poultry flocks indicates that present applied strategies are not fully effective in the case of this infection. Biosecurity measures, vaccination programs and surveillance are altogether effective strategies in prevention of infection.

Keywords: Newcastle disease, HI, Iran.