2016, Number 4

Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 5(4), 2016


Biochemical characterization of glutathione S-transferaases purified from chick embryo brain 


Dasari*, S. Gonuguntla, M. Ganjayi, B. Meriga, and Th. Kedam



Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are phase II defence enzymes and they use multi strategies to protect cellular system from both exogenous and endogenous noxious elements. So, researchers and pharmacologists’ are showing interest on GSTs from several decades. Generally birds are highly mobile in both earth and air, and they go through various environments polluted by either industrialization or crop system modernized with pesticide, herbicides and etc. But there is no sufficient attention on defence enzymatic system on birds. The present study was aimed to purify chick embryo brain cytosolic GSTs by using glutathione CL-agarose affinity matrices and the purified GSTs were showed significant activities with model substrates. In addition to that, chick embryo brain GST was exhibit glutathione dependent peroxidase activity. Affinity purified chick embryo brain GSTs were resolved into two bands on 12% sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel (SDS PAGE) and they named as CBI and CBII.  Biochemical characterization of GST was agreed with the previous literature. So, it was identified that the affinity purified brain GSTs from chick embryo may be related alpha and mu class.


Key words: Chick embryo barin, Glutathione CL-agarose affinity column, CBI & CBII, Alpha & Mu GSTs

2016, Number 3

Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 5(3), 2016


Production performance of hubbard broilers with different floor spaces under hot climatic conditions of


pakistan Naeem*, ­­­­N. Tahir, and F. Shahzad


The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of four stocking densities on the production performance i.e. Weight Gain, Feed Consumption, Feed Conversion ratio (FCR) and Mortality of Hubbard broilers chicks. Four of the stocking density treatments; 10birds/m², 12birds/m², 9birds/m² and 8birds/m² were provided to the four groups A, B, C and D, respectively. The experiment was conducted for 2 to 6 week of age of the birds (7 days adaptation period and 35 days experimental period). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. Twenty three hours light was provided. When the data calculated for weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio was analyzed statistically; the difference between the stocking density treatments was found to be non-significant. Mortality for the four groups A, B, C and D was recorded as 6.67, 10.00, 3.33 and 0.00 percent, respectively. However, the birds those were highly stocked showed the highest mortality in the study.


Key words: Broiler Production, Performance, Stocking Density, Hot Climate

2016, Number 2

Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 5(2), 2016


Salmonella: Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility tests on isolates collected from poultry farms in and around Modjo, Central Oromia, and Ethiopia


 Abunna*, M. Bedasa, T. Beyene1, D. Ayana, B. Mamo, and R. Duguma


A cross-sectional study was conducted during period of February, 2015 to May, 2015 with the objective of Salmonella isolation from poultry farms in and around Modjo town and to determine antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolates. Accordingly, at total of 205 samples in which 100 cloacal swabs, 75 fresh feces, 10 litter samples, 8 chicken feed samples, 8 poultry drinking water and 4 chicken handlers’ hand swab samples were collected.31(15.12%) isolates were detected from 205 collected samples. The studied poultry farms had different prevalence rates but not statistically significant. The lowest prevalence was 5(10.64%) whereas the highest was 10 (20.00%). These isolates 11(11.00%), 14(18.67%), 4 (40.00%) and 2 (25.00%) were recovered from cloacal swabs, fresh feces, litter and poultry drinking water samples respectively. Of the 31 isolates, 21 (67.74%) were motile (contributes to zoonoses) while 10(32.26%) were non-motile. Thirty of 31 isolates were resistant to one or more of antibiotics. Of 30, 19 were multidrug resistant while 11 isolates were only resistant to tetracycline. One isolate was resistant to tetracycline and Kanamycin. Furthermore, 2, 5, 4, and 7 isolates were tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-resistant, respectively. All the 31 isolates were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin and Gentamycin. 18 (94.73%) of multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates were found resistant to five to seven different antimicrobials. According to this finding, Salmonella was isolated from different sample type, poultry growth stage, and breeds indicating its wider distribution. The detection of multi drug resistant 61.29% (19/31) isolates and 67.74% with likely of zoonotic potential indicated the salmonellosis could be an emerging poultry and public health problem. Therefore, further research is needed on major risk factors and molecular characterization for serotyping and genomic studies to have an idea about genes responsible for pathogenecity and drug resistance of the isolates of Salmonella.

Key words: Isolates, Multidrug resistant, Motility, Poultry breeds, Poultry farms, Poultry growth stage, Sample type

2016, Special Issue – “Nutrition”

Study of Effects of different levels of Bioherbal supplementation on Growth performance of Moghani fattening lambs

H Khodae, and O Esteghamat



This study was evaluated the effects of different levels of Bioherbal supplementation on performance of moghani fattening lambs. In this experiment, 24 male lambs with average weight of 31.73 ± 1.2 kg in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments and 6 replication for 84 days were studied. In this experiment, the diet has an energy level of 5.2 kg mega calories and 14.7% crude protein according to NRC (1985) recommendations. Food items were hay, straw, wheat, soybean meal, corn mill, Barley, vitamin-mineral supplements and salt.Treatments consisted of: Diet without Bioherbal supplementation as a control group, group 2 consisted Level of 10 grams Bioherbal supplements per kg of ration. Group 3, 20 grams Bioherbal and group 4, Level of 30 grams Bioherbal supplements per kg of ration dry matter. The results showed that the use of Bioherbal complementary levels had significant effects on dry matter intake of fattening lambs and group with level of 20 g Bioherbal had better performance.

Key words: Moghani lamb, Bioherbal, Palatability, Performance


Substitution effects of different levels of barley and sugar beet pulp on growth performance of fattening lambs Moghani

 M Namvar, and O Esteghamat




This study was performed to investigate the effects of replacing barley with different levels of beet pulp on growth performance of fattening Moghani lambs. In this experiment, average weight of 28 male lambs 32.3 ± 1.8 kg were used in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 7 replications. In this experiment, dietary energy level 2.6 mega calories per kg and 14.8 percent crude protein been used according to the NRC (1985). Treatments consisted of control group without beet pulp feeding, group 2, 3, and 4 with 9, 18 and 27% beet pulp in their feeding ration respectively. The results showed that the use of different levels of beet pulp had no significant effect on dry matter intake of fattening lambs, but group with feeding of 27% beet pulp attained significantly higher performance.

Key words: Sugar beet pulp, Barley, Moghani lamb, Performance

2016, Number 1

Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 5(1), 2016


Effect of feeding Moringaoleiferahay on performance, lactation, and nitrogen balance in lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes in semi-arid areas of South Asia


Muhammad Imran*, Ghulam Bilal, Mahar unNisa, Muhammad Mobashar4, Mubarak Ali


The present study was conducted in semi-arid areas to examine the effect of feeding Moringaoleifera hay (MOH) on intake, digestibility, milk yield and its composition in lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes.  Eight buffaloes of Nili Ravi breed were selected from the dairy herd on the basis of nearly similar lactation stage and body weight in the experiment.  In this trial, buffaloes were blocked by parity and randomly assigned within block to one of two treatments for the duration of 17 weeks. An isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate was formulated and fed as a part of ration to all buffaloes with same quantity.  While in the remaining part of the ration, one group was offered ad libitum Medicago sativa hay (MSH) and other group was provided MOH, respectively. Animals were fed at the rate of3% of their body weight per day.Dry matter (DM) intake was higher in buffaloes fed MOH diet than in those fed MSH diet.  Digestibility of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and ether extract were significantly higher in buffaloes fed MOH diet as compared to MSH diet. Milk yield and 4% fat corrected milk, solid corrected milk, milk protein, and solid not fat were higher in buffaloes fed MOH  diet than in those fed MSH diet; however, milk fat percent, milk fat yield (kg/day), lactose, total solids, specific gravity and milk pH were not affected by the treatments. The findings of the present study indicate that feeding MOH as a part of the ration not only has increased nutrients intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance but also improved milk production in lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes in semi-arid areas.

Key words: Moringaoleifera, Dry matter intake, Digestibility, Milk production, Milk composition, Nitrogen balance, Buffaloes


Isolation, Characterization and Serological Study of Avibacterium paragallinarum field isolates from Indian Poultry


 V. Patil, D. N. Mishra and D. V. Mane 



A total of 65 nasal swab samples from Infectious coryza suspected poultry birds were collected from different geographical locations of India during 2013 to 2015 and subjected to isolation of organism, biochemical  and serological characterization of isolates by Page scheme along with confirmation by PCR. Biochemically, the isolates demonstrated abilities to utilize four sugars i.e. Glucose, Mannitol, Sorbitol and Sucrose, whereas two sugars Galactose and Trehalose were not fermented by them. All isolates were able to convert nitrate to nitrite. The isolates were negative for catalase, H2S production and Indole test and showed absence of oxidase activity. Among 17 field isolates of Avibacterium paragallinarum, along with serovar A and serovar C, there is presence of serovar B. Out of 17 isolates, the serovar C was prevalent with 47% and serovar A was 27%, whereas serovar B was found to be only 11% and 2 strains were non-typable.  This is the first confirmed report of presence of serovar B in Indian poultry isolates.

Key words: Avibacterium paragallinarum, Infectious coryza, India, Poultry.

2015, Number 4

Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 4(4), 2015


The nutritional value of soaked-boiled-fermented jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seed meal for poultry





Chemical analysis, apparent metabolizable energy and one feeding trial were conducted to assess the nutritional value of jackfruit seeds that had been subjected to a combination of soaking, boiling, followed by fermentation. In the feeding trial, five broiler starter diets were formulated with the processed jackfruit seed meal constituting 0, 80, 160, 240 and 320 g/kg of the diet. The jackfruit seeds before and after processing contained 151, 140 g crude protein; 740, 747 g total carbohydrates; 11.1, 1.28 g tannins; 10.0, 1.47 g total oxalates per kg respectively. The apparent metabolizable energy value of the processed jackfruit seed meal was 2368±315 Kcal/kg. Inclusion of the processed jackfruit seed meal affected chick growth, nutrient utilization and organ weights relative to body weight. At 80 and 320 g/kg inclusion, weight gain and feed/gain were depressed by 5.2, 42.1%; 6.2, 40.7% respectively. Feed intake was not affected up to 240 g/kg inclusion but reduced by 18.3% at 320 g/kg. Except for gizzard; weights of liver, caecum, heart, intestines and pancreas were affected. At 80 and 320 g/kg inclusion; weights of caecum, intestine, pancreas and gizzard increased by 69.4, 113.9%; 4.5, 43.2%; 7.3, 46.3%; 11.3, 14.6%, while liver and heart were reduced by 7.7, 22.2%; 27.9, 34.2% respectively. Apart from nitrogen retention; nitrogen digestibility, dry matter digestibility and excreta water content were not affected. Nitrogen retention increased by 38.5% at 320 g/kg inclusion. Processing reduced tannins and oxalates from jackfruit seeds by over 85%. The processed jackfruit seed meal can be included in poultry diets at levels up to 80 g/kg without compromising with: feed intake, feed efficiency, daily weight gain and nutrient utilization. Although the cost per kg gain of birds increased with jackfruit seed meal inclusion, the seeds will eventually be readily available at low or no cost. However, for economic efficiency the cost of collection and treatment should be put into consideration.

Key words: Anti-nutrient, Broiler, Feedstuff, Performance, Processing



2015, Number 3

Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 4(3), 2015


Requirement of Calcium and available Phosphorus for Laying Japanese quail birds (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in Nigeria 


A.Y. AGUDA, A. A. Sekoni and J. J. OMAGE


An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance and egg production of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed diets with varying calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (aP) levels. A total of 270 female quails (7weeks old) were raised on deep litter for fourteen weeks (98 days). The birds were assigned to nine dietary treatment groups of 30 birds each with three replicates of 10 birds per pen. They were fed nine dietary treatments with three levels of Ca (2.5, 3.0, and 3.5%) and three aP levels (0.35, 0.45 and 0.55%). The diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous (22%CP) and iso-caloric (2630kcal/kgME). Results revealed highest final weight, hen housed production for diets containing 2.5% Ca+0.35%aP. Feed conversion ratio and feed cost per crate of egg were also lowest for 2.5%Ca+0.35%aP. Diet containing 2.5%Ca+0.45%aP yielded the lowest average daily feed intake. Birds fed 3.5%Ca+0.35% aP yielded the highest average egg weight but highest mortality. The result of single effect of calcium revealed lowest mortality for 2.5%Ca. For single effect of Phosphorus, 0.35% resulted in the highest final weight but had the lowest average daily feed intake. The result of the layer phase showed that quails from (7-20) weeks can be raised optimally on 2.5%Ca+0.35%aP.

Key words: Available Phosphorus, Calcium, Egg production, Japanese quails, Performance


Influence of Varying Levels of Corn Steep Liquor on Nutrients Intake, Digestibility and Growth Response in Growing Buffalo Calves




This study was planned to examine the influence of varying levels of corn steep liquor on feed intake and growth performance of growying nili-ravi male buffalo calves. Fifty male buffalo calves of 9 month old were randomly divided into five groups, 10 animals in each group, using Randomized Complete Block Design. Five isonitogenous (16% crude protein) and isocaloric (2.6 Mcal/kg) diets were formulated. The control diet had 0% corn steep liquor and in 20, 40, 60 and 80% diets, urea on nitrogen equivalent was replaced by corn steep liquor, respectively.Animals were given weighed amount of feed twice daily at ad libitum. The daily feed offered and refusals were recorded to calculate dry matter intake. The sample of feed offered and refusal were used to determine dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. Animals fed 40% corn steep liquor diets ate highest dry matter (3.33kg daily)and was the lowest (3.16 daily) by those fed 40% corn steep liquor diets. The neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility was higherin animals fed diets containing corn steep liquor than those fed diet containing 0% level. However, dry matter and crude protein digestibility remained unaltered across all diets. Calves fed 40% corn steep liquor diets gained more weight (757 g/day) than those fed 80% (637 g/day). Pre slaughter weight of animals fed 40% corn steep liquor diet was the highest (141.5 kg) and was the lowest (130 kg) in those fed 80% corn steep liquor diet. Warm carcass weight was higher in animals fed 40% (65.8 kg) diet followed by those fed 60%, 80%, 20% and control diets. Primal cuts, ash, Na, K and Ca remained unchanged across all diets. The red blood cell count, white blood cells, packed cell volume and hemoglobin values were also same across all diets. In conclusion, animals fed CSL40 diet gained more weight and were cost-effective when compared to those fed control, 20%, 60% and 80% diets.

Key words: Buffalo Calves, Corn Steep Liquor, Intake, Digestibility, Growth Performance.


2015, Number 2

Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 4(2), 2015


Estimation of genetic parameters for economic traits in Mazandaran native chickens


Gorgani Firozjah, H. Atashi, and A. Zare


The aims of this study were to estimate genetic parameters and genetic trends of economic traits in Iranian native chickens. The used data were collected from the Mazandaran native chickens breeding center located in Mazandaran Province during 1988 and 2011 years. The (co)variance components were estimated through an animal model using Gibbs sampling method. The estimated heritability (±SE) for body weight at hatch (BW1), body weight at age of 8 (BW8) and 12 (BW12) weeks, age at sexual maturity (ASM), body weight at sexual maturity (WSM), the number of produced eggs during the first 12 weeks of production (ENs), the first egg weight (FEW), average egg weight at age of 28 (EW28), 30 (EW30), and 32 (EW32) weeks of production, and average egg weight of 28 to 32 weeks of production (EW28-32) were 0.33(±0.02), 0.29(±0.02), 0.28(±0.02), 0.39(±0.02), 0.47(±0.02), 0.24(±0.02), 0.20(±0.02), 0.34(±0.02), 0.39(±0.02), 0.40(±0.01) and 0.51(±0.02), respectively. The average inbreeding coefficient was 2.8%, and ranged from zero to 29.8%. The results revealed significant effect of inbreeding on the BW1, BW8, ASM, ENs and EW28-32. The estimated genetic trends for BW8, BW12, WSM, FEW, EW28, EW30, EW32, ENs and EW28-32 were significant.

Key words: Heritability, Genetic trend, Genetic parameters, Mazandaran native chickens


Radial fracture in bat: a case report


 Sayahi, M. Salaran, S. Dehghani, A. Raayat Jahromi, H. Savadkouhi



Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight. Many fractures in this species will be open fractures, usually of the humerus or radius. The purpose of this study was to present a bat with fractured radius and report its handling, surgical technique, fracture reduction and fixation protocol.Anesthesia was induced by Ketamine (40 mg/kg), the fractured fragments of the radius were reduced, a straight stainless suture needle of appropriate size employed as intramedullary pin which was inserted into the medulla by retrograde technique. The bat was cage confined for three weeks and antibiotic was prescribed for 5 days. The follow up evaluation at three weeks post operation showed good union and callus formation at the fractured site.

Key words: Bat, Fracture, Radius, Intramedullary fixation




2015, Number 1

Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 4(1), 2015


Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of the Caecal Bacteria Population of Broiler Chickens Fed with Corn-Soy Diet containing 20% of Palm Kernel Meal with or without Enzyme Supplementation


 Sharmila, A. Kasim, H. M. Noor, M. F. Jahromi, and A. A. Samsudin*


In the present study, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to enumerate the caecal bacterial population of broiler chickens fed with corn-soy based diet containing 20% of palm kernel-meal with or without enzyme supplementation. A total of seventy five day old male Cobb broiler chickswas used in the feeding trial receiving a corn-soy diet with20% of palm kernel meal with or without xylanase or cellulase supplementation at an amount of 200U/kg of feed respectively. On day 35, birds were slaughtered and the caecum content was aseptically collected for the bacterial quantification. Both xylanase and cellulase supplementation in the diet significantly reduced the population of total bacteria, enterococcus and Salmonella spp. bacteria in the caecal digesta of broiler chickens. Moreover, the population of lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria and Escherichia coli in digesta of broiler chickens fed with enzyme supplementation was also significantly reduced compared to broiler chickens received no enzyme addition in the diet. However, eventhough the population of bifidobacteria analyzed in the caecal digesta of enzyme supplemented broiler chickens was reduced compared to non-supplemented broiler chickens, it is not significantly different. The result obtained suggested that xylanase and cellulase supplementation at an amount of 200 U/kg of feed reduced a number of pathogenic bacteria in the caecal particularly enterobacteria, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria.

Key words: Real-time PCR, Corn-soy based diet with 20% PKM, Caecal bacteria, Enzyme, Broiler chicken


The effect of partial replacement of yellow corn by banana peels with and without enzymes on broiler’s performance and blood parameters


 C. Blandon, G. A. A. Hamady, and M. A. Abdel-Moneim*


Six weeks experiment was performed using 288 (one day- old) ROSS chicks in order to evaluate the effect of replacing 15, 30 or 45% of yellow corn with dried banana peels (with and without enzyme) in broilers’ diets on their growth performance and blood parameters. The metabolizable energy of banana peels was calculated from a digestibility trial and was found to be 2932 Kcal/Kg. The proximate analysis of dried banana peels showed that they contain 10g/100g (crude protein), 14.91 g/100g (crude fiber), 18.64 g/100g (ash), 0.31 g/100g (calcium) and 0.25 g/100g (phosphorus). The results of the growth experiment showed that the inclusion of banana peels in broilers’ diet did not cause significant changes in broilers’ performance. The supplementation of enzyme in the diets resulted in an enhancement in broilers’ performance parameters numerically with no statistically significant differences. The groups fed on banana peels at the different tested levels with and without enzyme had significantly lower levels of cholesterol and triglycerides as compared to the control groups. The economic study revealed that increasing the replacement level of banana peels resulted in a lower feed cost of the diets. In conclusion, the results of the present study confirmed the use of banana peels in broiler’s diet as a promising application in animal feed.

Key words: Banana peels, Blood, Broilers, Carcass, Enzyme, Performance