2015, Number 4

Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 4(4), 2015


The nutritional value of soaked-boiled-fermented jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seed meal for poultry





Chemical analysis, apparent metabolizable energy and one feeding trial were conducted to assess the nutritional value of jackfruit seeds that had been subjected to a combination of soaking, boiling, followed by fermentation. In the feeding trial, five broiler starter diets were formulated with the processed jackfruit seed meal constituting 0, 80, 160, 240 and 320 g/kg of the diet. The jackfruit seeds before and after processing contained 151, 140 g crude protein; 740, 747 g total carbohydrates; 11.1, 1.28 g tannins; 10.0, 1.47 g total oxalates per kg respectively. The apparent metabolizable energy value of the processed jackfruit seed meal was 2368±315 Kcal/kg. Inclusion of the processed jackfruit seed meal affected chick growth, nutrient utilization and organ weights relative to body weight. At 80 and 320 g/kg inclusion, weight gain and feed/gain were depressed by 5.2, 42.1%; 6.2, 40.7% respectively. Feed intake was not affected up to 240 g/kg inclusion but reduced by 18.3% at 320 g/kg. Except for gizzard; weights of liver, caecum, heart, intestines and pancreas were affected. At 80 and 320 g/kg inclusion; weights of caecum, intestine, pancreas and gizzard increased by 69.4, 113.9%; 4.5, 43.2%; 7.3, 46.3%; 11.3, 14.6%, while liver and heart were reduced by 7.7, 22.2%; 27.9, 34.2% respectively. Apart from nitrogen retention; nitrogen digestibility, dry matter digestibility and excreta water content were not affected. Nitrogen retention increased by 38.5% at 320 g/kg inclusion. Processing reduced tannins and oxalates from jackfruit seeds by over 85%. The processed jackfruit seed meal can be included in poultry diets at levels up to 80 g/kg without compromising with: feed intake, feed efficiency, daily weight gain and nutrient utilization. Although the cost per kg gain of birds increased with jackfruit seed meal inclusion, the seeds will eventually be readily available at low or no cost. However, for economic efficiency the cost of collection and treatment should be put into consideration.

Key words: Anti-nutrient, Broiler, Feedstuff, Performance, Processing



2015, Number 1

Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 4(1), 2015


Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of the Caecal Bacteria Population of Broiler Chickens Fed with Corn-Soy Diet containing 20% of Palm Kernel Meal with or without Enzyme Supplementation


 Sharmila, A. Kasim, H. M. Noor, M. F. Jahromi, and A. A. Samsudin*


In the present study, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to enumerate the caecal bacterial population of broiler chickens fed with corn-soy based diet containing 20% of palm kernel-meal with or without enzyme supplementation. A total of seventy five day old male Cobb broiler chickswas used in the feeding trial receiving a corn-soy diet with20% of palm kernel meal with or without xylanase or cellulase supplementation at an amount of 200U/kg of feed respectively. On day 35, birds were slaughtered and the caecum content was aseptically collected for the bacterial quantification. Both xylanase and cellulase supplementation in the diet significantly reduced the population of total bacteria, enterococcus and Salmonella spp. bacteria in the caecal digesta of broiler chickens. Moreover, the population of lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria and Escherichia coli in digesta of broiler chickens fed with enzyme supplementation was also significantly reduced compared to broiler chickens received no enzyme addition in the diet. However, eventhough the population of bifidobacteria analyzed in the caecal digesta of enzyme supplemented broiler chickens was reduced compared to non-supplemented broiler chickens, it is not significantly different. The result obtained suggested that xylanase and cellulase supplementation at an amount of 200 U/kg of feed reduced a number of pathogenic bacteria in the caecal particularly enterobacteria, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria.

Key words: Real-time PCR, Corn-soy based diet with 20% PKM, Caecal bacteria, Enzyme, Broiler chicken


The effect of partial replacement of yellow corn by banana peels with and without enzymes on broiler’s performance and blood parameters


 C. Blandon, G. A. A. Hamady, and M. A. Abdel-Moneim*


Six weeks experiment was performed using 288 (one day- old) ROSS chicks in order to evaluate the effect of replacing 15, 30 or 45% of yellow corn with dried banana peels (with and without enzyme) in broilers’ diets on their growth performance and blood parameters. The metabolizable energy of banana peels was calculated from a digestibility trial and was found to be 2932 Kcal/Kg. The proximate analysis of dried banana peels showed that they contain 10g/100g (crude protein), 14.91 g/100g (crude fiber), 18.64 g/100g (ash), 0.31 g/100g (calcium) and 0.25 g/100g (phosphorus). The results of the growth experiment showed that the inclusion of banana peels in broilers’ diet did not cause significant changes in broilers’ performance. The supplementation of enzyme in the diets resulted in an enhancement in broilers’ performance parameters numerically with no statistically significant differences. The groups fed on banana peels at the different tested levels with and without enzyme had significantly lower levels of cholesterol and triglycerides as compared to the control groups. The economic study revealed that increasing the replacement level of banana peels resulted in a lower feed cost of the diets. In conclusion, the results of the present study confirmed the use of banana peels in broiler’s diet as a promising application in animal feed.

Key words: Banana peels, Blood, Broilers, Carcass, Enzyme, Performance


2014, Number 1

  Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 3(1), 2014


Atypical Actinobacillosis in a Dairy Cow

G. Farjani Kish*,A. Tabatabaei Naeini, F. Namazi, ,Y. Ariyzand



Actinobacillosis is an infectious, chronic, generally non-fatal disease caused by Actinobacillus lignieresii. The etiologic agent is a part of the oral flora and causes pyogranulomatous lesions of the soft tissues. A 5-year old, approximately 500 kg cross-breed Holstein cow was presented for the treatment of a large, ulcerated and hemorrhagic mass at the left side of the neck in vicinity of the jugular furrow. Anamnesis indicated that the condition began three months previously as a small, walnut-size swelling that gradually enlarged over this period. After surgical resection of the mass, histological assessment revealed multiple pyogranulomatous foci-contained radiating eosinophilic clubs surrounded by many neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages and connective tissue. Clinical manifestations, bacteriological and pathological examinations of biopsy confirmed atypical actinobacillosis. In this case, the route of entry of organisms probably had been an abrasion or wound in the skin of the neck.

Key words: Actinobacillus lignieresii, Pyogranulomatous, Bacteriological, Pathologic, Biopsy


Achievement to the goat’s spermatogonial stem cells from embryos

                Alireza Hasani Bafarani, Ziaoddin Mirhoseini, Farid Heidari



The present study reports an easy approach to obtain an abundant origin of pluripotent spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) from the goat fetal testis tissue. These cells showed tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase activity and also express three markers of pluripotency (NANOG, SOX2 and OCT4) which are also expressed in embryonic stem cells. We found that these cells can be used for co-culturing with the inactivated goat embryonic fibroblast for several passages without differentiation or changing in shape. It was also found out that, these cells can remain viable at -70 °C one month by using DMSO.

Key Words: Fetal spermatogonial stem cells, Germline stem cells, Goat embryo


Effect of xylanase and cellulase supplementation on growth performance, volatile fatty acids and caecal bacteria of broiler chickens fed with palm kernel meal-based diet

Sharmila, K. Azhar, M. N. Hezmee, and A. A. Samsudin*



In this study, the effect of xylanase and cellulase supplementation in palm kernel meal (PKM) based diet on growth performance, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and the caecal bacterial populations of broiler chickens were investigated. Seventy five day old male Cobb broiler chicks were randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups receiving T1 (20% PKM-based diet without enzyme), T2 (20% PKM-based diet with xylanase) and T3 (20% PKM-based diet with cellulase). Each enzyme was supplemented at an amount of 200U/kg of feed. Weekly body weight gain and feed intake were recorded. All chickens were slaughtered on day 35 and the caecum content was aseptically collected for VFAs quantification and bacterial enumeration. Supplementation of xylanase and cellulase in PKM diets had different effect on the growth performance, the number of caecal bacterial population and VFAs produced. A significant reduction in the cumulative feed intake of birds fed cellulase-supplemented PKM compared to xylanse-supplemented and unsupplemented PKM diet was observed. However, the final body weights gain and cumulative feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly different between the treatment groups. Determination of VFAs production of the caecal contents demonstrated a significant difference in the production of iso-butyric and n-valeric acid among treatment groups. The number of total viable bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coliform in caecal samples were also enumerated. Significant difference was observed in the number of caecal bacteria population between the treatment groups. The effect of xylanase and cellulase on weight gain of broiler chickens was strongly related to the feed intake rather than due to the decrease in the number of pathogenic bacteria in the caeca. Xylanase supplementation was beneficial in enhancing cumulative feed intake, weight gain and FCR of the broiler chickens, but did not entirely reduce the number of pathogenic caecal bacteria. However, cellulase supplementation reduced all parameters observed for growth performance and the number of caecal bacteria.

Key words: Xylanase, Cellulase, Palm Kernel Meal, Bacteria, Broiler


Mycological and pathological study of broiler mortalities associated with clinically apparent respiratory diseases

Madadi M. S*,Ashrafi Helan. J , Zare. P



In this study, 1136 tissue samples from mortalities of 230 suspected broiler farms were cultured and subjected to isolation, laboratory and histopathology diagnosis of Fungi species. Four fungi species were isolated from respiratory system of necropsied broilers; they were Aspergillus fumigatus, Mucor spp, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. At necropsy, extensive yellowish white caseous miliary nodules in the lung and air sacs were seen. Histopathologic examination of tissue sections revealed granulomas in lungs and thickened abdominal air sac membranes. The results of this study indicated that fungal species are present in birds with apparent respiratory diseases. It is very important to be aware of the high prevalence of these organisms, the sources and points at which the chicks become infected with the organisms as well as the diseases they can cause and possibly put them under surveillance as important pathogens of poultry.

Key words: Fungal, Broiler, Isolation, Histopathology, Mortality