2015, Number 3

Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 4(3), 2015


Requirement of Calcium and available Phosphorus for Laying Japanese quail birds (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in Nigeria 


A.Y. AGUDA, A. A. Sekoni and J. J. OMAGE


An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance and egg production of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed diets with varying calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (aP) levels. A total of 270 female quails (7weeks old) were raised on deep litter for fourteen weeks (98 days). The birds were assigned to nine dietary treatment groups of 30 birds each with three replicates of 10 birds per pen. They were fed nine dietary treatments with three levels of Ca (2.5, 3.0, and 3.5%) and three aP levels (0.35, 0.45 and 0.55%). The diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous (22%CP) and iso-caloric (2630kcal/kgME). Results revealed highest final weight, hen housed production for diets containing 2.5% Ca+0.35%aP. Feed conversion ratio and feed cost per crate of egg were also lowest for 2.5%Ca+0.35%aP. Diet containing 2.5%Ca+0.45%aP yielded the lowest average daily feed intake. Birds fed 3.5%Ca+0.35% aP yielded the highest average egg weight but highest mortality. The result of single effect of calcium revealed lowest mortality for 2.5%Ca. For single effect of Phosphorus, 0.35% resulted in the highest final weight but had the lowest average daily feed intake. The result of the layer phase showed that quails from (7-20) weeks can be raised optimally on 2.5%Ca+0.35%aP.

Key words: Available Phosphorus, Calcium, Egg production, Japanese quails, Performance


Influence of Varying Levels of Corn Steep Liquor on Nutrients Intake, Digestibility and Growth Response in Growing Buffalo Calves




This study was planned to examine the influence of varying levels of corn steep liquor on feed intake and growth performance of growying nili-ravi male buffalo calves. Fifty male buffalo calves of 9 month old were randomly divided into five groups, 10 animals in each group, using Randomized Complete Block Design. Five isonitogenous (16% crude protein) and isocaloric (2.6 Mcal/kg) diets were formulated. The control diet had 0% corn steep liquor and in 20, 40, 60 and 80% diets, urea on nitrogen equivalent was replaced by corn steep liquor, respectively.Animals were given weighed amount of feed twice daily at ad libitum. The daily feed offered and refusals were recorded to calculate dry matter intake. The sample of feed offered and refusal were used to determine dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. Animals fed 40% corn steep liquor diets ate highest dry matter (3.33kg daily)and was the lowest (3.16 daily) by those fed 40% corn steep liquor diets. The neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility was higherin animals fed diets containing corn steep liquor than those fed diet containing 0% level. However, dry matter and crude protein digestibility remained unaltered across all diets. Calves fed 40% corn steep liquor diets gained more weight (757 g/day) than those fed 80% (637 g/day). Pre slaughter weight of animals fed 40% corn steep liquor diet was the highest (141.5 kg) and was the lowest (130 kg) in those fed 80% corn steep liquor diet. Warm carcass weight was higher in animals fed 40% (65.8 kg) diet followed by those fed 60%, 80%, 20% and control diets. Primal cuts, ash, Na, K and Ca remained unchanged across all diets. The red blood cell count, white blood cells, packed cell volume and hemoglobin values were also same across all diets. In conclusion, animals fed CSL40 diet gained more weight and were cost-effective when compared to those fed control, 20%, 60% and 80% diets.

Key words: Buffalo Calves, Corn Steep Liquor, Intake, Digestibility, Growth Performance.


2014, Number 3


Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 3(3), 2014


Morphometric variations among five Bhutanese indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus) 

N. Dorji*, and S. K. Sunar  



Morphometric characterization provides baseline information for initiating population’s improvement. Thus, the study aims to investigate variations of morphometric traits in five indigenous chickens of Bhutan. A total of 122  adult female birds belonging; Seim (Red Jungle-fowl type), Yuebjha Narp (Black), Khuilay (Naked neck), Phulom (Frizzle) and Shekheni (Short-legged) were included for live weight and linear body measurements. Descriptive and inferential statistics of SPSS 16 were used to determine the influence of bird type on some quantitative traits. Adult Seim was the heaviest (mean, 1.58; SE, 0.10 kg), followed by Naked neck (mean, 1.46; SE, 0.05 kg) while the lowest was Frizzle (mean, 1.36; SE, 0.04 kg). Mean body was the widest and narrowest for Seim (29.85 cm) and Shekheni (27.67 cm), respectively. In addition, lengths of body were longer and shorter in Seim (40.48 cm) and Shekheni (27.67 cm), respectively. On the contrary, the longest back length was observed in Shekheni (21.23 cm). Frizzle (11.55 cm) and Seim (11.53 cm) was bigger thigh circumference while Shekheni (10.84 cm) was low. Similarly, thigh lengths were the longest in Frizzle and Seim. Strong positive correlations for body weight and linear body measures were examined in all populations Seim and Naked neck had the best coefficient of correlations in studied traits. A cluster analysis could also classify the Bhutanese indigenous chickens into two main clusters; creeper (Shekheni) and non-creepers (Frizzle, Yuebjha Narp, Naked neck and Seim). These information may prove essential with any future research on local chickens of Bhutan.

Key words: Breeding strategy, income, indigenous chicken, sustainable


The Effect of Body Condition Score and Body Weight of Merghoz Goats on Production and Reproductive Performance 

M. M. Moeini*, R. Kachuee,and M. T. Jalilian



Two experiments were performed to determine the effect of body condition score (BCS) on Merghoz goats’ performance. In the first experiment, 80 goats (2-4 years old, 27-43 kg), and in the second experiment, 28 Merghoz goats (2-3 years old, 26-39 kg) were divided to 4 treatments groups according to their BCS (2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5). The number of kids born per kidding, kilogram kids born per goat mating, pregnancy period and kid’s birth weight were determined. Blood samples to monitor the changes of blood follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations were collected from goats, two weeks before expected kidding data and on kidding day. Blood metabolites such as glucose, total protein, albumin and globulin were determined. The results of the first experiment indicated that BCS=3.0 had a significant effect on the kilogram kids born per kilogram goat. Similarly, the kids born per kilogram goat were affected by BCS. The results of the 2nd experiment also indicated that goats with BCS = 3.0 (32-36 kg) had better performance in kids born per goat at mating and birth weight of kids was significantly affected by BCS of their dams. There was a significant effect of BCS on plasma FSH concentration in goats with BCS more than 3.0. In conclusion, BCS had a significant effect on kilogram kids born per goat, birth weight of kids and FSH concentration at mating and a score of 3.0 at mating time could optimize profitability of Merghoz goats and their kids.

Key words: body condition score, Body weight, Merghoz goats, production, reproductive performance


Small Intestine Morphology, Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Young Broilers Affected by Different Levels of Dietary Putrescine


S. M. Hashemi, T. C. Loh*, H. L. Foo, I. Zulkifli, and M. H. Bejo




 This experiment was conducted to investigate dietary putrescine effects on broiler performance. Treatments were 6 levels of putrescine (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 & 0.05 %) added to a basal diet and fed to 4-32 day old broilers. The weekly growth performance was recorded, and ileal digesta and small intestine samples were collected at the end of the 2nd and 3rd week of age. At 21 d, body weight and feed intake were increased with 0.03 and 0.01% dietary putrescine supplementation respectively, while feed conversion ratio was not affected. At younger age (14 d), decreasing effects of putrescence on BW and energy- protein digestibility were seen. Meantime, protein digestibility decreased at 0.04% putrescence at 14 days old chicks while at older age this effect was not seen, suggesting an interaction between the age and dietary putrescence effect. Duodenal villus height and crypt depth were increased significantly due to putrescine at both ages (14 and 21 days) as compared to control group. In conclusion, dietary putrescine may have an accelerating effect on the growth rate of birds since whilst body weight and feed intake improved feed conversion ratio remained unaffected. Dietary putrescine is positively effective on small intestine villus height and crypt depth, particularly at younger ages.

 Key words: Polyamines, Growth rate, Intestinal morphology, Digestibility


Multiplex-PCR Assay for detection of Salmonella typhimurium and  Salmonella enteritidis in poultry feedstuffs

N Nourmohamadi, B Shokrollahi*




Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR), the concurrent amplification of two or more polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products in the same reaction tube, can be applied to the rapid detection of pathogenic microorganisms in animal feedstuffs. Poultry feedstuffs has been implicated as important established source of infection to specific Salmonella serovars. Poultry feedstuffs can be an origin for transfer bacteria. In this study, 30 feedstuffs samples were collected from feed stocks of broiler chicken farms in Kermanshah province in the west of Iran. In order to isolate Salmonella, conventional cultural methods including pre-enrichment, enrichment and selective agar plating tests were performed. To confirm the identification of isolated colonies as Salmonella. and determining as Typhimurium and Enteritidis serovars, a M-PCR assay, using three pairs of primers were employed, S141 and S139 for InvA gene, specific for the genus of Salmonella spp. Fli15 and Tym for FliC gene, specific for Typhimurium serovar and Sef167 and Sef478 for sefA gene, specific for Enteritidisserovar. M-PCR results indicated that 3.3% of samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp. and confirmed that all contaminated samples belong to Salmonella typhimurium serovar and no contamination with Salmonella enteritidis has been detected. In conclusion, it is recommended that M-PCR method can be used as a viable alternative to traditional cultural methods for detection of poultry feedstuffs contamination by Salmonella serovars.

Key words: Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Multiplex PCR, Poultry feedstuffs