2014, Number 2

Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 3(2), 2014


Effect of feeding different processed pigeon PEA (Cajanus cajan) supplemented with Maxigrain® on the performance and carcass characteristics of weaner rabbits

A. Y. Aguda*, and J. J. Omage



This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of differently processed Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) with enzyme, Maxigrain® supplementation on the performance and carcass characteristic of weaner rabbits. The pigeon peas used were raw, boiled and soaked with and without Maxigrain® supplementation, respectively. A total of 42 weaner rabbits (6 weeks old) of mixed breed and sexes with average initial weight 450 g, were randomly assigned to seven – dietary treatments in a complete randomized design, consisted of 0%, 30% (raw with Maxigrain®), 30% (boiled with Maxigrain®), 30% (soaked with Maxigrain®), 30% (raw without Maxigrain®), 30% (boiled without Maxigrain®) and 30% (soaked without Maxigrain®) representing treatments T1(control diet), T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7, respectively. Each dietary treatment was replicated 6 times, with rabbits housed in individual cages. The trial lasted for 8 weeks. The average daily weight gains in treatments with pigeon pea based diets (T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7) were all similar while T1 had the lowest average daily weight gain. The feed to gain ratio and feed cost per kg gain were highest for T1 compared to the other treatments. The mortality was significantly higher in T4 compared to all other treatments. There was no significant difference in final weight, average daily feed intake, water intake, and water to feed ratio in all the treatments. There were significant differences in the pre-slaughter weight, slaughter weight, dressing percentage, head, skin, tail, liver, kidney, heart, lungs, empty intestine, stomach, heart and chest. The dressing percentage, head, kidney, thigh, were significantly lower in T6 compared to all other treatments. There were no significant differences in the carcass characteristics of the dressed weight, full intestine, length of intestine, length of intestine and loins. The results indicate that pigeon pea at 30% inclusion, either raw or processed with or without Maxigrain® can be used effectively to replace groundnut cake as protein source in rabbit nutrition.  Also, pigeon pea in rabbit nutrition will reduce the cost of production and does not have any harmful effect on the rabbit.

Key words: rabbit, pigeon pea, Maxigrain®, processing methods


Hemogram and antibody profiles of local and broiler chickens under different vaccination programs




The assessment of maternal immunity of poultry birds transferred to young chicks was carried out using both local breed and broiler chickens, with an objective to determine the antibody level pattern and hematological parameters of chickens in the first thirty one (31) days of life. One hundred and twenty birds were used for the study. Ninety (90) broilers and thirty (30) local breed chickens were grouped into four of 30 birds per group. Group 1 was local breed chickens only (LC), group 2 was vaccinated with “Primer” – Newcastle disease virus (SIM), group 3 was vaccinated with Primer and booster (Lasota) dose of Newcastle disease virus (DIM) and group 4 was non vaccinated broilers (NIM). Chickens were fed with standard feeds and adequate water ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected from the groups at every 72 hour interval using standard methods. The leukocyte count was higher among the groups, packed cell volume was unstable, but increased gradually with age, heterophil / lymphocyte (H/L) ratio was decreasing with age among groups. Unlike NIM and SIM, Immunoglobulin Y was raised following vaccination on day 21 in DIM group; it was gradually increased in LC with age. Immunoglobulin M was not significant between the groups. The maternal antibody in LC and DIM were statistically significant but there was no significant difference in hematological parameters of the birds used in this study irrespective of the species. NDV vaccination had no effect on packed cell volume and hemogram. H/L ratio and antibody level decreased with age, given that the birds were not immunologically challenged.

Keywords: Broilers, Hemogram, Local breed, Maternal immunity, Newcastle disease virus


Exogenous Enzyme Improves Immunocompetence in Laying Hens Fed Diets Containing Safflower Meal

A. Ehsani, A. H. Mahdavi*, B. Dolatkhah, and A. H. Samie



An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different levels of exogenous enzymes on egg quality characteristics and immunological responses of laying hens fed diets containing different levels of safflower meal. The 47-week old layers (Hy-Line W-36) were fed 10 experimental diets consisting five levels of safflower meal (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0%) and two levels of dietary exogenous enzyme (0.0 and 0.1% Bergazym P®) during the experimentation. The trial period lasted for a total of 10 weeks, and egg quality indices were measured as two 35 day experimental periods. After 48 and 55 days of experiment, birds were injected with 1 mL of 7% Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBC) intramuscularly. At the end of experiment, the antibody titer against SRBC and differential circulating leukocyte count were measured for investigating immune status. Least squares mean analysis showed that although the inner egg quality characteristics (yolk index and Haugh unit) were not influenced by dietary treatments, using the highest level of safflower meal caused remarkable decrease in eggshell weight and strength during the first 35-day experimental period. Nonetheless, these parameters showed tendency to decrease during the second trial period. The heterophils to lymphocytes ratio were significantly increased after feeding different levels of safflower meal and reach to the highest level in hens fed diet containing 10% of this meal. This response was due to the increase in heterophils population and contemporaneous decrease in lymphocytes percentage. Inclusion of 0.1% dietary enzyme had remarkable modulatory effect on heterophils count and the heterophils to lymphocytes ratio. Following the administration of dietary enzymes, the number of lymphocytes and thereby, the primary humoral immunity response increased significantly, however, this alteration had tendency to increase during the secondary immunity response against SRBS. Therefore, our results indicated that using high level of safflower meal (10%) in laying hens diet could have aversive effects on eggshell quality. Also, administration of dietary exogenous enzyme to the diets of laying hens would have beneficial effects on immunological responses, especially in terms of heterophil to lymphocyte ratio depression or improvement of humoral immunological functions

Key words: safflower meal, exogenous enzyme, laying hens, egg quality, immune responses


Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on nutritive value of safflower forage and silage

F. Asgharzadeh*, M. H. Fathi Nasri, M. A. Behdani



      This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on nutritive value of safflower forage and silage by in situ and in vitro methods. The safflower forage was harvested at flowering stage, chopped to 3-5 cm particles and then ensiled in the laboratory silos for 60 days. The experimental treatments included: 1. Unfertilized forage (control), 2. Phosphorus fertilized forage (100 kg per ha), 3. Nitrogen fertilized forage (300 kg per ha), and 4. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilized forage (300 kg N and 100 kg P per ha). The effect of Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on reduction of Dry mater, Neutral detergent fiber and Acid detergent fiber and increasing of ash, Calcium and Phosphorus of forage and silage was significant. The Nitrogen fertilizer significantly increased Crude protein, Non-protein nitrogen and Buffer soluble protein and decreased the Acid detergent insoluble nitrogen content of silage. The Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers caused the significant increase of the degradability of both safflower forage and silage. The highest production of gas after 96 h of incubation belonged to treatment 4 and the lowest was for treatment 1 (for both forage and silage). The effect of Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on gas production of forage and silage was significant. Applying the Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers caused the significant increase of the gas production parameters including b and c fractions and also Metabolism energy content of forage and silage. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers application caused the production of the higher quality forage for making silage and also improving the Dry mater digestibility of silage.

Keywords: Nitrogen fractionations, Ruminal degradability, Gas production, Safflower forage