2014, Number 3


Journal of Animal and Poultry Sciences (JAPSC)

Vol 3(3), 2014


Morphometric variations among five Bhutanese indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus) 

N. Dorji*, and S. K. Sunar  



Morphometric characterization provides baseline information for initiating population’s improvement. Thus, the study aims to investigate variations of morphometric traits in five indigenous chickens of Bhutan. A total of 122  adult female birds belonging; Seim (Red Jungle-fowl type), Yuebjha Narp (Black), Khuilay (Naked neck), Phulom (Frizzle) and Shekheni (Short-legged) were included for live weight and linear body measurements. Descriptive and inferential statistics of SPSS 16 were used to determine the influence of bird type on some quantitative traits. Adult Seim was the heaviest (mean, 1.58; SE, 0.10 kg), followed by Naked neck (mean, 1.46; SE, 0.05 kg) while the lowest was Frizzle (mean, 1.36; SE, 0.04 kg). Mean body was the widest and narrowest for Seim (29.85 cm) and Shekheni (27.67 cm), respectively. In addition, lengths of body were longer and shorter in Seim (40.48 cm) and Shekheni (27.67 cm), respectively. On the contrary, the longest back length was observed in Shekheni (21.23 cm). Frizzle (11.55 cm) and Seim (11.53 cm) was bigger thigh circumference while Shekheni (10.84 cm) was low. Similarly, thigh lengths were the longest in Frizzle and Seim. Strong positive correlations for body weight and linear body measures were examined in all populations Seim and Naked neck had the best coefficient of correlations in studied traits. A cluster analysis could also classify the Bhutanese indigenous chickens into two main clusters; creeper (Shekheni) and non-creepers (Frizzle, Yuebjha Narp, Naked neck and Seim). These information may prove essential with any future research on local chickens of Bhutan.

Key words: Breeding strategy, income, indigenous chicken, sustainable


The Effect of Body Condition Score and Body Weight of Merghoz Goats on Production and Reproductive Performance 

M. M. Moeini*, R. Kachuee,and M. T. Jalilian



Two experiments were performed to determine the effect of body condition score (BCS) on Merghoz goats’ performance. In the first experiment, 80 goats (2-4 years old, 27-43 kg), and in the second experiment, 28 Merghoz goats (2-3 years old, 26-39 kg) were divided to 4 treatments groups according to their BCS (2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5). The number of kids born per kidding, kilogram kids born per goat mating, pregnancy period and kid’s birth weight were determined. Blood samples to monitor the changes of blood follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations were collected from goats, two weeks before expected kidding data and on kidding day. Blood metabolites such as glucose, total protein, albumin and globulin were determined. The results of the first experiment indicated that BCS=3.0 had a significant effect on the kilogram kids born per kilogram goat. Similarly, the kids born per kilogram goat were affected by BCS. The results of the 2nd experiment also indicated that goats with BCS = 3.0 (32-36 kg) had better performance in kids born per goat at mating and birth weight of kids was significantly affected by BCS of their dams. There was a significant effect of BCS on plasma FSH concentration in goats with BCS more than 3.0. In conclusion, BCS had a significant effect on kilogram kids born per goat, birth weight of kids and FSH concentration at mating and a score of 3.0 at mating time could optimize profitability of Merghoz goats and their kids.

Key words: body condition score, Body weight, Merghoz goats, production, reproductive performance


Small Intestine Morphology, Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Young Broilers Affected by Different Levels of Dietary Putrescine


S. M. Hashemi, T. C. Loh*, H. L. Foo, I. Zulkifli, and M. H. Bejo




 This experiment was conducted to investigate dietary putrescine effects on broiler performance. Treatments were 6 levels of putrescine (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 & 0.05 %) added to a basal diet and fed to 4-32 day old broilers. The weekly growth performance was recorded, and ileal digesta and small intestine samples were collected at the end of the 2nd and 3rd week of age. At 21 d, body weight and feed intake were increased with 0.03 and 0.01% dietary putrescine supplementation respectively, while feed conversion ratio was not affected. At younger age (14 d), decreasing effects of putrescence on BW and energy- protein digestibility were seen. Meantime, protein digestibility decreased at 0.04% putrescence at 14 days old chicks while at older age this effect was not seen, suggesting an interaction between the age and dietary putrescence effect. Duodenal villus height and crypt depth were increased significantly due to putrescine at both ages (14 and 21 days) as compared to control group. In conclusion, dietary putrescine may have an accelerating effect on the growth rate of birds since whilst body weight and feed intake improved feed conversion ratio remained unaffected. Dietary putrescine is positively effective on small intestine villus height and crypt depth, particularly at younger ages.

 Key words: Polyamines, Growth rate, Intestinal morphology, Digestibility


Multiplex-PCR Assay for detection of Salmonella typhimurium and  Salmonella enteritidis in poultry feedstuffs

N Nourmohamadi, B Shokrollahi*




Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR), the concurrent amplification of two or more polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products in the same reaction tube, can be applied to the rapid detection of pathogenic microorganisms in animal feedstuffs. Poultry feedstuffs has been implicated as important established source of infection to specific Salmonella serovars. Poultry feedstuffs can be an origin for transfer bacteria. In this study, 30 feedstuffs samples were collected from feed stocks of broiler chicken farms in Kermanshah province in the west of Iran. In order to isolate Salmonella, conventional cultural methods including pre-enrichment, enrichment and selective agar plating tests were performed. To confirm the identification of isolated colonies as Salmonella. and determining as Typhimurium and Enteritidis serovars, a M-PCR assay, using three pairs of primers were employed, S141 and S139 for InvA gene, specific for the genus of Salmonella spp. Fli15 and Tym for FliC gene, specific for Typhimurium serovar and Sef167 and Sef478 for sefA gene, specific for Enteritidisserovar. M-PCR results indicated that 3.3% of samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp. and confirmed that all contaminated samples belong to Salmonella typhimurium serovar and no contamination with Salmonella enteritidis has been detected. In conclusion, it is recommended that M-PCR method can be used as a viable alternative to traditional cultural methods for detection of poultry feedstuffs contamination by Salmonella serovars.

Key words: Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Multiplex PCR, Poultry feedstuffs